May 04, 2011

LSD: Lake View's view

 A Lake View's Prospective
Linked to another post called
1942 Belmont Bridge Overpass 
that final link to the 1937-42 WPA project
(Please click to enlarge any image/article)
From Chicago History in Pictures 
- before the fire looking north
It Started with Potter Palmer & a Dream
photo - Chuckman Collection
 
Lake Shore Drive postcard 1905 - CardCow
Potter Palmer & Bertha Honore Palmer
photo - Chicago History Museum
Lake Shore Drive began as a self-interest dream of a man who dominated the business community in Chicago throughout the mid to the late 19th century owning most of the property on State Street. His name was Potter Palmer. His wife, Bertha Honore, was a personality of her own right.
photo - University of Illinois Digital Maps 1872 
showing the existing shoreline before the construction of Sheridan Road & Outer Drive
The Township/City of Lake View  (1857-1889)
with Fullerton Avenue as its south border with Chicago
1857 Dream Article: A Drive along the Shoreline 
(click to enlarge article)
1867 A Proposed Route is Discussed
1871 Meeting to Extend LSD to Diversey 
through Township of Lake View
(click to enlarge article)
The North-Lake Shore Northward
I will try to map out an evolution of the first Lake Shore Drive that began at the Palmer Potter Estate to Grace Street in Lake View Township that later involves a Midwest storm in 1929 that destroyed the original road. At the ladder part of the Great Depression an new and wider Lake Shore Drive would emerge.The evolution of the Outer Drive still continues with plans to extend it more south as well as re-inventing it for mass transit. 
In the late 19th century until the Depression era of the 1930's Lake Shore Drive was piece-mealed together. The most noticeable division was in the park,Lincoln Park. Potter's LSD would have ended at the park's southern point at about North Avenue but then took a leap to Fullerton Avenue in the late 19th century and later Diversey Boulevard (Parkway).The encroachment of the park into Lake View Township from Fullerton Avenue to Diversey Parkway allowed both representatives of both Chicago and Township (1857-87) and then City of Lake View (1887-89) to join the 
Lincoln Park Commission  that was established the the State of Illinois in 1869. The commission mission was expand the park, Lincoln Park and the Drive. This commission was charged to negotiate with private lakefront landowners for permission to landfill along the existing shoreline and later construct Lake Shore Drive north of the park. 
Below are some map images of the of the encroachment into Lake View Township. 
These images below are from 
University of Chicago Collection - 1888.
 notice the park of Fullerton Avenue - the southern border with the City of Lake View (1887-89)
Routing through the Park
 

Lincoln Park, the park, in the 19th century
image - Detroit Publishing
If you look on the right along the black wave (the lake) 'Boulevard Proposed' is marked indicating a planned extension road along the lakefront as of 1872.
In the Beginning
Shortly after 1882 Potter Palmer finally coerced the city to build a street adjacent to his lakefront estate so to enhance his property's value located at 1350 North Shore Drive (post 1909 address change). Mr. Palmer petition the city to name the drive after him and ... failed. The Drive began at about Oak Street and ended near Division Street, at that time.
1250 North Lake Shore Drive 
1885 photo -  Glen Miller via Forgotten Chicago-Facebook
Art Institute of Chicago
 photo - Art Institute of Chicago
the horse and carriage by entrance
photo - Art Institute of Chicago
 photo - Art Institute of Chicago
photo - Art Institute of Chicago 
photo - Art Institute of Chicago
His House 1882
The Palmer house  - photo 1914
This is what Mr. Palmer owned - The Palmer House 
- image 1909 Chuckman Collection
Potter Palmer
The Chicago Tribune article below indicates the Town(ship) of Lake View was interested in connecting North-Lake Shore Drive through the township via Lake View Avenue and a narrow strip of land-road called 'New Breakwater Carriage Drive and Sidewalk'. View the map below this article.
1882 Discussion to link the new drive to the 
Lake View Township via Lake View Avenue

image - University of Chicago Digital Maps zoomed
+ a reel footage from Digg (@ 50 seconds into it) 
of what I believe heading north on to Lake View Avenue
Views of the park 1887 - Ebay
The 'Breakwater Carriage Drive and Sidewalk' was initially designed to link LSD beyond the park to the northward
 - 1905 Ebay 
1886 Meeting to extend Lake Shore Drive into 
Lake View Township toward Evanston Township
The original plan was to link Lake Shore Drive to Fort Sheridan in Haywood, Illinois. By 1893 this linked road from Lincoln Park north to Fort Sheridan was renamed in honor of General Sheridan who died in 1892. The Lincoln Park Commission, established by the State of Illinois who had directors from both the City of Chicago and the now District of Lake View was to not only to plan for the parks expansion northward but the roadway that would be built along side it. 
An Account of 'the lake shore drive'
Chicago and its Suburbs by Everett Chamberlin 1884
“The lake shore drive is one of the finest improvements in or about Chicago and when completed will afford a carriage way 200 feet wide extending from Indiana street to Evanston twelve miles The whole surface will be graveled and as hard and level as a floor It is already completed as far north as the Marine Hospital in Lake View The superior advantages of this magnificent the pleasant scenery along its borders its elevation overlooking the lake and course near some of the most interesting improvements in the city and country these and other attractions will induce those who wish and can afford handsome sites to settle along its borders Already quite a number of our wealthier class have tracts on which they will build superb houses and it will be but few years before nearly all of the available ground will have been improved in the manner. Land along this drive has doubled in value in a short time It will increase four fold in the neighborhood of the city within a few years more.”
1899 The Other Residents along the Original Drive 
South of Lincoln Park, the Park

(pre 1909 addresses)
- Chicago Public Library via Chicago Tribune 
The Original Homes along the Drive
Another resident on Palmer's North Shore Drive was 
William Wrigley, Jr., chewing gum manufacturer and owner of the Chicago Cubs baseball team located at 1200 North Lake Shore Drive. - 1927 photo 
Lake Shore Drive (LSD) south of North Avenue - 1907
Estate of Edith Rockefeller McCormick
photo 1928 - Daily New Archives
The Franklin MacVeagh Residence
1400 N Lake Shore Drive
 built between 1885-87
photo - Art Institute of Chicago
photo - Art Institute of Chicago
 photo - Art Institute of Chicago
photo - Art Institute of Chicago
The George Woodruff Apartment
1500 N Lake Shore Drive
photo - Art Institute of Chicago
 photo - Art Institute of Chicago
 photo - Art Institute of Chicago
photo - Art Institute of Chicago
The North-Lake Shore Drive 
probably from Oak Street to North Avenue-1885ish?
 
- 1900-ish from Suicide Bridge
The drive ended at Fullerton Avenue at the time
Daily News Archives 

 Suicide Bridge or High Bridge (1894-1909) 
postcard - Man in Five  
North-Lake Shore Drive and its broadwalk - Ebay

 
Breakwater Carriage Drive and Sidewalk - mailed in 1908
Notice the cobble stone street!
The Last Home on Drive in 1875
 
Plans to extended beyond Belmont 1886
1904 Lincoln Park was land-filled northward 
Area south of Diversey (Blvd) Parkway - 1905
(notice the railing fence for the boardwalk) 
This fence extended apparently to Grace Street.
Area south of Diversey (Blvd.) Parkway 
and north of North Avenue by 1909. 
Notice the bridge over the drive that connected the lake with the land mass west of the Lincoln Park lagoons. It was called 'High Bridge' later to be coined Suicide Bridge after daily loss of life from the bridge during the last decade of its existence
 

Postcard from Suicide Bridge (1894-1909) probably looking north along the lagoon 1908 - Ebay
Postcard from the High Bridge south of Fullerton Avenue
image - Chuckman Collection
The segment of North Lake Shore Drive 
towards Fullerton Avenue - 1927
Cruise boats docked near Fullerton Avenue 
near the end of the existing park, Lincoln Park
- Daily News Archive - 1929
 
Description within postcard reads ...
"park from North Avenue to Cornelia Avenue"
The Caption the above Postcard reads ...
'Lincoln Park is located on the north side, being the largest in Chicago. The total area is 600 acres, the water surface alone comprising 140 acres. It extends along the lake front form North Avenue to Cornelia Avenue. Near the center of the park is the Zoo containing 2,300 specimens of animals, reptiles and birds. At the Dearborn Street entrance is located the St. Gauden’s bronze statue of Abraham Lincoln, which is regarded as the best likeness of the War President in existence.'
Before the Great Depression of 1929 the expansion of Lincoln Park landfill ended at Montrose Avenue. When the Depression engulfed the nation the construction and development project took a pause for a few years. The expansion of North Lake Shore Drive would again begin in earnest after the worst of the Depression was technically over ... between the years of 1937-1942 with stimulus monies from the federal government (WPA). This five year project would also created a newer roadway and a newer designed park, Lincoln Park.
image - Mark Reiner via Chicago Historical-Facebook
 1925 A Bond Floated to Expand LSD
 
1925 At the other end of the extension and expansion

The new 'Lincoln Park Driveway' (outer Drive)
 north of Fullerton Avenue toward Lake View
photo - Chicago History Museum
A view of the 'new Lincoln Park Driveway' (outer LSD) merging with cars along inner LSD along with a view of the former Belmont Hotel & Lockby Apartments 1927
1926 Dedication of LSD from North to Belmont Avenues
(click to enlarge segments of this article)

'double drive' meant Sheridan Road and Outer Drive
page 2
 
The new Lincoln Park Driveway (Outer Drive) 
north of Fullerton Avenue in 1927 
along with the original location Signal of Peace monument
Chicago History Museum via Explore Chicago
View from Sheridan Road and the landfill for the newer 
North-Shore Drive (outer LSD) just south of Irving Park Road - Daily News Archive - 1928 
1928 The Plans for an Overpass for the New Outer Drive
Landfill northward to Montrose 
@ Irving Park Road & Sheridan Road
Sheridan Road was renamed Lake Shore Drive in 1931 & Marine Drive much later
3 photos - Chicago History Museum via Explore Chicago
he Great Depression of 1929 placed a temporary halted to the expansion of the drive beyond Belmont Avenue. The last piece of the drive was the construction of the Belmont Overpass Bridge that was completed by 1942.
colorized & enhanced view of the landfill for the Outer Drive 
1928 photo Calumet 412
This is the best view I have seen of landfill formation for the outer drive and park space. The beach at the end of the Drive was called Clarendon (public) Municipal Bathing Beach that adjoined Wilson (private) Beach just directly north of Montrose Avenue.  
The build out of Montrose Harbor as of 1923
Plans were in place to extend the Outer Drive northward
photo - Marty Swartz: Living History of Illinois and Chicago
 construction of the outer drive 
somewhere near Montrose - guessing?
1929 photo - Chicago History Museum
 construction of the outer drive 
somewhere near Montrose - guessing?

1929 photo - Chicago History Museum
The Storms of 1929 
the Damage to the Drive
Lake Shore Drive was hit by a 'one-two punch' in 1929. First came the April as wells as in October and then the October economic collapse. That year the Drive was destroyed and land-fill expansion of the park was at a financial stand-still. 
a sample of the turbulence of the lake
The powerful waves of the lake from the steps of the 
High Bridge - Daily News Archives 1913
A major storm hit the Midwest and Chicago that destroyed property along the lakefront including Potter Palmers' original North-Lake Shore Drive along with park and existing 
end-beaches along the lake. After the storm the U.S. government engineers needed to resolve the existing ever increased lake water levels of the past decades along with the storm damage that destroyed public and private property along the lakefront. Lincoln Park was the link between the south and north segments of LSD. The park & connecting streets were redesigned during the early 1940's to accommodate wider street lanes and high lake water levels. 
photo - Ravenswood-Lake View Community Collection
1929 Chicago Tribune article on the storm
(click to enlarge article)
 page 2
This storm completely destroyed the simple and leisurely 
roadway and broadwalk along most of lakefront. The photos below tell the tale of destruction along the lakefront from North Avenue to Belmont Harbor. The roadway link through the park that connected North-Lake Shore Drive south and north of the park to Belmont Avenue - 'Breakwater Carriage Drive and Sidewalk' was totally destroyed by the crashing waves of the lake. 


North Avenue Field House
Damage in Belmont Yacht Harbor
View more photos of the damage along the lakefront
Side Note: The storms still cause damage to the lakefront no matter what man-made changes are made as a day in October 2014 can attest.
 
 
 photos - Active Trans LFT
This storm of 2014 not only destroyed bike & running paths but traffic was an issue according to this Vine video feed with a host of photos above from Twitter account called 
But this was not the first time Lake Michigan decided to make war with the man-made modifications ....with this article below telling that story.
The Lake tried to reclaim man-made expansion
several times since it's creation 
(click to enlarge 1901 article)
view before the expansion & extension of the outer drive - 1930 photo - Calumet412
view of Lincoln Park extension to Wilson Ave. early 1930's
with views of Belmont and Diversey harbors in the distance
photo - Darla Zailskas via Forgotten Chicago-Facebook
WPA Project 1937-1941
After years of stagnation - stimulus
View and listen about the WPA and their mission.
After the storm and before the WPA project from the near north-side to North Avenue - 1930
Man of Five photo
1932 Lake Shore Drive looking south from Diversey Parkway from atop the Park Lane Hotel in Chicago 
with private company Motor Buses heading south
Chicago Tribune historical archives
Larry Lund contributor to Forgotten Chicago on Facebook
The Park was Redesigned 
to Accommodate the New Drive northward

1938 view of existing park design
somewhere in Lincoln Park, the park 1934 
photo - Chuckman Collection
The Park District is ready! 1940
(click to enlarge article)
 
photo - Chuckman Collection
LSD widen to 8 lanes
The land-filled park along the lake begins to expand north from Belmont to Montrose Avenue 1928-1933
the company that made it happen
image - Ebay
1940 Proposed Plan (red)
to extend LSD beyond Osterman Beach 
(old Hollywood Beach) and south
The 1938-1940 
Belmont Harbor Bridge Proposal
did not happen
Some plans never get off the drawing board. According to 1940 publication called ‘Chicago Bridges Recording Project’ for the extension of Lake Shore Drive northward to Foster Avenue there was an ambitious plan for the Belmont Harbor area that showed six "ramp type passerelles" or catwalks much like the pedestrian bridge parallel to North Avenue. This plate-girder construction across North Lake Shore Drive was to be at every other cross street from Briar Place to Grace Street
 
jpegs - Library of Congress 
Blueprints on the pedestrian bridge

Complaints from local real estate and business organizations resulted in the developers to build only two of the crossings—at Briar Place and Aldine Avenue but as pedestrian subways or in other words not over but under Lake Shore Drive. The only passeralle to be constructed over LSD was at North Avenue - due to the park's greater width at that location and/or perhaps because of the designs’ space that allowed a more elegant arch form of construction. According to this report the passerelle near Menomonee Street appeared to have avoided disapproval from the public. 
photos - Library of Congress
The passerelle design won praise from New York’s Museum of Modern Art by its construction phase 1938-40. 
1937-1942  (WPA) Federal assistance program expands North-Shore Drive (LSD) to Foster Avenue to the north and Jackson Park to the south. LSD is widen and expanded from LaSalle Street to Lawrence Avenue, at the time called Lawrence Drive.
View of LSD northwest 
with Belmont Hotel in the background 1941-42
photo - Art Institute of Chicago
3400 N. Sheridan Road 
(3400 N. inner LSD) 1940's
photo - Art Institute of Chicago
Sheridan Road (inner LSD) and North-Shore Drive are separated by yards between Melrose and Grace streets. As the above photo image indicates and below article tells the the tale of roadways that needed to be re-design as of 1935.
New Traffic System 1935

(click to enlarge article)
 The 'folk in the road': Inner LSD (Sheridan Road) and toward Lake Shore Drive - 1936. Notice that Belmont Bridge was not yet constructed - that was done by 1941.
The separation from Inner LSD (Sheridan Road) and the new Outer LSD at Byron Place by 1937
Closer look @ the 'folk in the road' near Melrose and Sheridan Road towards North Shore Drive - 1936
This island that separates Inner LSD (Sheridan Road) from North-Shore Drive looking south at Melrose Avenue. The statue of General Sheridan was located in the middle of the island as of 1928. - photo Daily News Archive 1933
Note:  The Belmont Bridge Underpass was not constructed until 1941 - that last piece to connect the northside with the southside of Lincoln Park, the park.  
 The intersection of Belmont Avenue 
and Lake Shore Drive as of 1936
1938  Residents need for underpasses to lakefront
The new Outer Drive from Diversey Harbor to downtown 1940's - Ebay
The final link to the Outer Drive was completed with the construction of the Belmont Bridge Overpass 
The Belmont Bridge January 1941
1941 October
Belmont Bridge Done!
View of the Belmont underpass - 1942
- North Lake Shore Drive Forgotten Chicago on Facebook
Lake Shore Drive from Irving Park Road toward 
Wilson Avenue - 1937
 
- from CardCow
Description within postcard reads:
'A bird's-eye view of Lincoln Park extension recently beautified by the Chicago Park District. The Outer Drive passes through here with frequent turn-outs leading to the beautiful Waveland golf course, Montrose Yacht Harbor, and great Montrose - Wilson bathing beach.' 
The WPA project included this stretch of the LSD
 University of Illinois- Chicago via Explore Chicago
Along with the turn toward Oak Street 
and the Palmer mansion
University of Illinois- Chicago via Explore Chicago
End of the line for many years: 
View looking south from Foster Avenue 1938
photo from Neil Gale, administrator of Living History of Illinois and Chicago on Facebook
 Lake Shore Drive only to Foster Avenue with the 
Edgewater Beach Hotel in the distance - 1938 photo
1947  Lake Shore Drive near Irving park road morning rush  
Chicago Tribune Archives via Larry Lund contributor to Forgotten Chicago on Facebook
to Foster Avenue
photo - North Lake Shore Drive website
LSD ENDS at Foster Avenue by 1947
photo - Man on Five via Chicago Tribune Archives
Those LSD Fin's
 
A story about the 'Fins' from Calumet 412 - 1951 photos
A Tale of the Fins
'Two photos taken from Lake Shore Drive at Belmont 
looking south
Notice the three wide parallel lines that run along the drive. These were called “fins” and could be hydraulically raised or lowered depending on the time of day to regulate traffic patterns.
The first photo was taken between 6:30-9:30 am. One fin would be raised, creating 2 lanes of north bound traffic and 6 lanes of southbound traffic.
The second photo was taken between 4 and 7 pm, showing six lanes designated as north bound (with three “express” lanes in the center) and 2 lanes as south bound.
During non-rush hour traffic, only one fin would be raised in the center, creating 4 north bound and 4 south bound lanes - the permanent configuration we have today.
I imagine this had the potential of creating chaos as the fins appeared or disappeared, but there are many mornings during my standstill commute downtown that I wish this was still in practice!'
photo - vintage tribune on Instagram
1957  Lake Shore Drive is extended to Hollywood Beach using the dirt and debris from the Eisenhower Expressway project.
1982  Native Americans tried to reclaim a segment of Lake Shore Drive according to this Chicago Tribune article.
(click to enlarge article)
The Several Names of LSD
2013-2020 Phase

This idea is based on the need to create more city assets. While the NLSD project redesigns the Drive on existing land the BSC creates more land to the east into the lake - creating 225 acres of prime real estate. It has been done before but can we do it again?
 
This proposed project involves improvement of seven miles of the 8-lane of north Lake Shore Drive boulevard from Grand Avenue to Hollywood Avenue, including the 12 highway junctions. Junctions are those locations where major cross streets intersect Lake Shore Drive and access is allowed to and from the Outer Drive. The project will evaluate the condition of the 22 bridges and tunnels along the Outer Drive as well as the operation of the Inner Drive.

Future Vision of the Drive
along with
Lincoln Park, the park
photos from the first meeting 2013
 photo Lake View Patch
 photo Lake View Patch
photo Lake View Patch
 photo Lake View Patch
photo Lake View Patch
photo Lake View Patch
photo Lake View Patch
 photo Lake View Patch
photo - Lake View Patch
With a detail vision of the traffic flow off Addison Street 
photos - 2014
NLSD (North Lake Shore Drive) project along the entire northside lakefront established seven task forces with
three geographic subgroups of stakeholders. 
There are the following: 
Grand Avenue to Diversey Avenue Task Force  
This group will be comprised of residents and stakeholders addressing issues from this section of the NLSD project, including the 2nd, 42nd and 43rd wards.
Diversey Avenue to Montrose Avenue Force 
This group will be comprised of residents and stakeholders addressing issues from this section of the NLSD project, including the 43rd and 44th wards.
Montrose Avenue to Hollywood Avenue Task Force 
This group will be comprised of residents and stakeholders who will address issues from this section of the NLSD project, including the 46th and 48th wards organizations. In order to get involved in a project that may take decades in the making. Follow the progress on Facebook.

Post Notes:
View the countless photographs of Outer Drive via Flickr. 
Also, view some selective photos of the history of the entire Drive from the Chicago Tribune.
The original 'Potter Palmer driveway' north towards Lincoln Park has currently become an expansion further south along the former steel mills of the far southeast side of the city.
The plan is to create a new neighborhood with this new extension. 


Important Note:
These posts are exclusively used for educational purposes. I do not wish to gain monetary profit from this blog nor should anyone else without permission for the original source - thanks!

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