June 15, 2015

The Influencer's of the Land

The Six Main Ethnic Groups
Depiction of Germans embarcking for sail 
image - Harper's Weekly 1874
Each European group brought with them their own culture, faith, and vitality to the area of Lake View that included Lutheran, Catholic and/or Jewish sensibilities of hard work and devotion to family and community.
I would like to first note that the Native Indian populations were forcible removed from urban centers by the mid-19th century. With the native tribes gone the non-native Americans could move in greater numbers. 
A sizable Native American population (not as tribes but as individuals) began moving back to some urban areas such as the north-side of Chicago, in particularly the neighborhood of Uptown by the mid-20th century.
The last Native Americans of the Area
 Chief Topinabee (He Who Sits Quietly). 
He was one of the greatest Potawatomi chiefs of all time.
The Potawatomi was the sacred keeper of the fire. They would have a lot of fires and they would have one big fire that would have a shelter over it so that the fire would never go out. And sometime they would take off the covering of the wigwam and leave just the frame. The fire was built on a mat so it was mobile. Their job assigned by the Great Spirit was to keep the fire burning and if it ever went out a curse would fall on all the Potawatomi. According the Sheffield Association a village was located in the area of Fullerton, Lincoln, and Clark Street noted for its high elevation. 'Clark Street' was noted for its high ridge that would overlook the marshland below to the east before the Europeans arrived. View this link of villages of the area as of 1804. In 1970 another village was created called 'American Indian Village' near Wrigley Field. It lead to almost two year occupation of a Nike missile military (Cold War era) sight between Belmont Harbor and Montrose Harbor. 
View the video (begin @ 7 minutes 30 seconds) on the movement that lead to the occupation of that military sight.
This Chicago Tribune article tells the reader of the return of Native Americans to the Chicago as of 1982.
(click to enlarge article)
 
 Note: View my post about the Native Americans of this area for more information of the native tribes of the Great Lakes. 
 The greatest influx of Luxembourgers into the United States was during the mid and late nineteenth century during a time of political and territorial drama by the major powers of Europe, particularly Belgium and newly united nation of Germany. Between 1841 and 1891, an estimated 45,000 Luxembourgers emigrated to the United States. In the 1830's and 1840's the Luxembourgers arrived in such areas as Maryland, New York and Louisiana. The greatest attraction was in the Midwest, where most of them eventually settled due to availability of fertile and inexpensive farmland. During this time many came on board ships of the Red Star Line, which sailed from Antwerp, Belgium.
The most significant emigration was between 1846 and 1860 that led to a great expansion in the population of Luxembourgers in America. During this time period they settled in Illinois. A large number settled in Chicago while smaller, yet significant, numbers settled in Rogers Park area, Town of Chittenden (Rosehill Cemetery) in Lake View Township, Evanston Township, Aurora area, and what is now the suburb of Skokie.
After 1870 Chicago's Luxembourgers were able to construct a rich ethnic life, shaped by growing nationalism in the homeland following independence in 1867, by their own increasing prosperity, and by their desire to distinguish themselves from a local German community often associated with labor radicalism.
The 1874 article below tells a tale of political uncertainty that continued in one form of another for this principality throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.
Conflict in the Old World 1874
Read more about their migration to this area with this link.
 Chicagoland's initial period of rapid growth in the mid-nineteenth century coincided with the acceleration of
 German language speaking emigration with a sizable German Jewish influx to the United States particularly New York and Chicago. The Germans had been migrating across the Atlantic for a century, and during the peak period of 
mass emigration [P.64] (1820–1920) - 5.9 million reached the United States. An estimate of 300k from 1870 to the late 1890s migrated to Chicago.  In Chicago, at time of the Civil War (1861-1865), 40.5 % of all foreign-born residents were of German heritage primarily due to the aftermath of 1848 revolutions in Central Europe. By 1890 an estimated 2.8 million German-born immigrants lived in the United States. A majority of the German-born living in the United States were located in the 'German triangle', whose three points were Cincinnati, Milwaukee, and St. Louis. After the Chicago Fire of 1871 many German American residents moved north into community of Lincoln Park and some further north into Lake View Township where land was cheaper and areas more sparsely populated. 
- Final Landmark Recommendation Report dated 2011 
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries German owned and operated beer-gardens dotted the map of Lake View. Read more about this with this link to another post. The most popular was Bismarck Gardens once located on the southwest corner of Grace & Halsted Streets.
According to this 1930 social science map from the University of Chicago Collection (zoomed) it looks like the concentration was in west and southwest. The darker stripped areas indicate density of population. 
 The Germans in Chicago 1888 
(click to enlarge)
... another article in 1902
(click to enlarge article)
Read an excellent narrative about the German influence in Chicago by Neil Gale, admin of Living History of Illinois and Chicago (on Facebook) with this link.
The Swedes
The Swedes migrated to the United States and the Midwest in 1848 due to a shortage of good land to farm across Sweden. It was estimated at the time that over 40 per cent of Swedish soil was unproductive. This situation was made worse by an increase in population. One of the main reasons for this was a fall in infant mortality from 21% in 1750 to 15% in 1850. The situation grew worse in the 1850's when Sweden suffered a succession of poor harvests. Unemployment grew and wages fell. This led to a increase in the numbers of people wishing to emigrate. Most of these were bankrupted farmers and out of work agricultural labourers. Only about a quarter of all Swedish emigrants came from towns and cities. In Chicago the Swedes settled in an area called SwedeTown to later establish enclaves at Belmont/Clark and Clark/Foster.
photo - Chuckman Collection 1912 on Sheffield & School
Independent Order of Vikings hall was called Bradge Lodge #2 - one of many and first permanent meeting place for this organization.

By 1895, therefore, the I.O.V. had become incorporated as a certified insurance company. The Viking Order has continued up to the present time to operate under this Charter, issuing life insurance certificates to its members in amounts up to $10,000 in Illinois and other states in which it is licensed to operate. - segment of their history (word doc)
This lodge, lodge 27, was established in 1906 and occupied this building by 1922 - it construction date.
A token with the address - Ebay
Near the old commercial epicenter of Belmont-Ashland-Lincoln the Swedish community erected four churches to support their unique interests; Elim Swedish Methodist, Trinity Lutheran, Lake View Mission Covenant, and Swedish Trinity Lutheran. Another Swedish church in the area is the North Mission located at 1412 W Barry that was part of the Swedish Evangelical Free Mission Churches.
postcard images - Ebay
important contributor - Aaron Lisec
The Fralsningsarmens - Lake View Corps
was located near the IOV lodge
The (Swedish) Lake View Corps 1940
Most if not all Swedes needed to travel to British or German ports and ships to migrate to the Americans at this time.
The years between 1890 and 1919, according to publication called Ethnic Chicago (p.118), Swedes had the greatest influence in Lake View with five Swedish churches and eleven public lodges with the most concentration in the Belmont/Clark Street area. The Swedes were known to be employed with the ‘truck farms’ in the northern part of 
old Lake View township.
According to this 1930 social science map from the University of Chicago Collection (zoomed) it looks like the concentration was in central areas. The dark shaded areas indicate density of population.
An Account of Swedes in America 1895
(click to read article)
 A testament - 1960

Read a 1962 essay from the more recent past by Henry Bengston called Chicago's Belmont and Clark: a Corner of Memories via Swedish-American Historical Quarterly that highlights the Swedish business on Clark and Belmont Avenue. Apparently, from this essay the Swedes much like the Germans loved their social (lodges) organizations.
Follow the Swedish experiences on a Facebook page called Swedish American Museum for photos and stories.
Swede to Korea-Town
According to the publication called The Lake View Saga the Swedish community in Lake View changed hands and was known as Korea-Town - excerpt for publication dated 1985.

The Japanese:
Nisei & Issei
Nisei means the son or daughter of Japanese immigrants 
who are born and educated in America and especially in the United States while Issei means a new Japanese immigrants to the Americas. 
Consul S. Yamasaki and his wife 
standing on a Chicago railroad platform 1911 
-Chicago History Museum
Their history in Chicago - 1904 
While there has been a presence of Japanese residents in Chicago since late and early 20th century the greatest influx of residents occurred after the United State Supreme ruled in 1943 that the internment of resident Japanese, particularly US born, was illegal but part of the decision forced Issei and Nisei to move to west of the Mississippi River. 
The Nisei & Issei  populations would prove resilient after their World War II experiences and would thrive in a new land called Chicago. Many found emotional and financial stability in Chicago - many in Lake View and Uptown neighborhoods. By the 1960's urban renewal projects began to displace residents and businesses as old buildings and tenements in Lincoln Park were razed in favor of modern high rises for middle to upper income tenants. 
The Nisei needed more spacious accommodations for their growing families. A migration to the north-side the Nikkei community ensued three miles further up Clark Street into the Lake View neighborhood, in the vicinity of Wrigley Field, establishing businesses and their own cultural institutions.
Their Arrival in Chicago 1948
(click on article to view)
There were two notable symbols of their presence in Lake View - their churches and Clark Street business area, in particular the restaurants during the 1950's and early 60's. 
View another church link here. 
The community's status 1950
(click to enlarge)
The most notable person of Lake View was 'Tokyo Rose'. Read more about her and her parents' store on Belmont Avenue with this Facebook link from my sister blog. 
A Senior Home on Sheffield & School 1965
(click on article to view)
 
page 2
 
photo - Discover Nikkei
One of the few retail establishments that has survived is the 
Nisei Lounge on Sheffield Avenue near Newport as of 2014. 
 celebratory photo via Susan Reibman Groff 1968 LVHS book
Mingling in Chicago 1987
(click on article to view)
A contribution to Lincoln Park 1967
(click on article to view)
Map of Japanese American business
Read more about the history of this ethnic group in a two part series part one about Lake View and then part two. 
This community as of 2017 still maintains its presence through it culture center
located at 1016 W Belmont Avenue
photo - their website
 both photo - Michael B. via Yelp
Saira C via Yelp
 both photos - William S via Yelp 2017
Although a handful of Puerto Rican men and women moved to Chicago from New York in the 1930's, the first significant wave of Puerto Rican Commonwealth citizens migration to Chicago began in the late 1940's. They arrived on the mainland seeking the same opportunities as their Euro counterparts, access to better life. By the 1960's most of the Chicago Puerto Ricans were concentrated in Lincoln Park, West Town, and Humboldt Park and shared these neighborhoods with Mexican and Polish immigrants as well as African Americans. An early Puerto Rican neighborhood was uprooted to construct Sandburg Village and moved north and west. In Lincoln Park, Puerto Rican residents established a small, ethnic enclave along Armitage Avenue that included small grocery stores and businesses providing goods and services for Puerto Rican neighbors. By the mid-1960's Puerto Rican and other low-income residents of Lincoln Park were displaced by urban renewal programs and the redevelopment of Lincoln Park. Puerto Rican residents relocated to West Town, New Town (East Lakeview) and more importantly Humboldt Park, where their concentration facilitated the creation of Chicago's first Puerto Rican barrio, or neighborhood, along Division Street, or, as residents frequently refer to it, la Division. Read an 2013 overview of the migration to Chicago with this link.
The Chicago Tribune articles below tell a tale of presence and struggle for these citizens in Chicago, particularly in the Lake View - Uptown areas.
1964 article about the formation 
of a minority committee
about their civic involvement 1966
also in 1966
(click on article to enlarge)
Funding for Spanish Speakers 1969

Neighborhood Association 
Assistance in 1969

Urban Renewal vs their population 1970
 Chicago is Home 1970
(click to enlarge article)
 Affordable Housing 
was a critical issue in the era of urban renewal for this population 1973

In 1974 Che Che Jimenz runs for alderman of the 46th ward, who apparently resided on somewhere on Grace Street. 
Mr. Jimenz was the head of the Young Lords 
Latinos struggle continue to fit in 1974
Latinos call Lake View home 1975

 Gentrification Begins 1976
New Town=Lake View East area
(click to enlarge article)

Their neighborhood struggle 1977
(click to enlarge article)
According to insert within this above article it appears like the concentration was in Lake View, West Town and New West Town. The concentration began to wane by 1990 according to University of Chicago census map - (zoom in)
(click to enlarge article)
Budget Cuts threaten Representation in Lake View 1983
(click to enlarge article)

page 2
(click to enlarge article)
The "last Puerto Rican" of Lake View 1987 
(my printer blocked out the highlighted areas of the article so red blanked out words was the word 'Roscoe' street)
Note: Read a detailed Chicago experience with this link
This map shows the following ethnic groups of 1950 Lake View with the ethnic Germans to the west, Japanese and Swedes to the east. In central Lake View were the native Puerto Ricans & Native Americans. 
My Commentary
It is in my opinion that without strong and vibrant organizations a social class or ethnic group had a more difficult time of survival in our neighborhood. The Germans and Swedes made an lasting impact in the neighbor because of their own associations and social clubs. The most notable organization in Lake View were the German speakers who established & sponsored Turnverein or Social Turners Clubs. Read about the current neighborhood associations in Lake View in my post called Civic Associations.


Post Notes: Read and view an interactive map of general change in immigration from 1850 - 2013 of the U.S. with this link.


Important Note:
These posts are exclusively used for educational purposes. I do not wish to gain monetary profit from this blog nor should anyone else without permission for the original source - thanks!
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