December 10, 2011

The Lincoln Park Connection, the park

Paid by the Taxpayers/Bondholders of 
Lake View & North Chicago Townships
The inital expansion of Lincoln Park northward was due to the financial support of North Chicago Township's (northern Chicago) property owners & bond-holders and the same type of citizens from the Township/City/District of Lake View
photo - part of my collection
The topography that existed prior to the late 19th century when there were bluffs overlooking the lake were the norm in particularly from Lake View Township/City northward. The resort or summer villa that coined the township, the Lake View House (hotel) faced the lakefront overlooking a bluff probably stretching north beyond Montrose Avenue - apparently one of many.
Welcome to Lincoln Park, 
the Park along the Lake
 postcard from my collection
Before the annexation of 1889 the citizens of both Township/City of Lake View and the Township of North Chicago paid for the maintenance of the park space though property taxation and bond issurances. A special authority called the Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners governed the expansion northward. The members of this commission were prominent citizens of both townships
and part of my collection 
images -'Lincoln Park 1899'
This book highlights the relationship with park called Lincoln and the township/city of Lake View from its early days in accordance to the publication of this book in 1899, a good read. The book was published as an report of the progress made that year. The first section is a comprehensive history of the park followed by sections about the history of Lake Shore Drive along with smaller sections about the Animal Department & Floral Departments within the park space. (click on below image to enlarge)
The Baseline
North Chicago was a township in Illinois before it annex to the City of Chicago. The City of Chicago bought land east of Lake View Avenue before Lake View was a township in Cook County
Lake Park to Lincoln Park
who paid ...
In accordance to a book called Chicago: The Garden City by Andreas Simon in 1893
text above - Board of Public Works report from 1862
text below - Board of Public Works 1863-1869
A Special Assessment in 1871
to the residents of the Townships of Lake View and North Chicago (then part of Chicago)
A Map View 
 before the Park Space  Existed
map - Barry Lawrence Rudman
This 1863 Charles Shober map shows the original park space (yellow), Chicago Cemetery (green), and Catholic Cemetery (yellow) south of the park space.
zoomed below
zoomed below again
The zoomed version of the 1863 map of the original park space shows rainwater drainage system called 
Lake Shore Ditch later be called the '10 mile ditch'. This ditch was designed to drain the swamp-like environment from the area. This drainage ditch stretched through Lake View Township
 view of the original park space
Another view of the park space that was created 
by architect/gardener Swain Nelson
image - The Cultural Landmark Fountain
This original park space was called 'Lake Park' 
prior to the assassination of Abraham Lincoln
The Park Space in 1863
map below - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
photo below - Hidden Truths:Lincoln Park
The governance of Lincoln Park was established by the State of Illinois in 1869 even though the park was created years before. This small park would a decade later absorbed the 60 acre cemetery called simply 'Chicago Cemetery' as well as the existing Catholic and Jewish cemeteries. Later in the 20th century the park space would expand northward along the lakefront. The Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners, the governing body for the parkland and the roadways along the lakefront, planned for the park's expansion northward along with the expansion of 'North-Lake Shore Drive' north of the park. The Board of 5 members would link the then 120 acre park with Chicago's neighbor to the north - the Township of Lake View by the early 1870's. While the membership of the Board was split between political representatives of Chicago & Lake View Township the maintenance and expansion revenue was split between two township assessors, Lake View and North Chicago townships (northern Chicago). Early Chicago was comprised of North, West, & South Chicago townships - all current taxing bodies for property assessment to this day even though there has been several attempts to abolish this unit of government - one of the oldest forms of governance in Illinois as well as in many eastern states.
The Topography of the Park by 1860
Lincoln Park 
The Political Father 
of Lincoln Park
a 1866 view of the park
image - Calumet 412
Not to be Overlook
appeared in Harper's Weekly in November 1871
wood-carving - Ebay
The fire of 1871 was another connection to the Township of Lake View and its residents. The fire crossed the border (Fullerton Avenue) a block or two along the lakefront forcing Chicagoans to find safe-harbor in the township until the rains ended this tragedy.
illustration below - Chicago Rebuilt 1875
The Land North 
of Fullerton Avenue
The city of Chicago bought a section of area belonging to Ridgeville Township (1850-57). Lake View Township, a subsection of the old township, was not established not until 1857. At this time the original park was located south of Webster Place. 
Note: Ridgeville Township composed of the areas of 
South Evanston and Lake View townships.
This 1887 map shows the land purchased 
by the City of Chicago in 1852 
but financed by the Township of Lake View and the taxing body of North Chicago Township
The shoreline was still dictated by the winds/sands 
from the lake
Raschers Atlas via History Map Works
Territorial Control
In 1853 the State of Illinois granted Chicago land from North to Fullerton avenues setting the stage for the ownership of Lincoln Park, the park. This area was known as North Chicago Township that still serves as a property taxing body in Illinois. With the establishment of Lincoln Park as a park the citizens of North Chicago Township paid the total cost of maintenance for the park land. When the park extended northward past Fullerton Avenue the citizens of both North Chicago and the Township of Lake View paid for the park.  The City of Chicago would only agree to contribute cost for police protection for the park. The cost matrix's of the park would change in the 20th century where by the citizens of Chicago would pay for the total costs of the ever expanding park under the authority of City of Chicago and still under the authority the 
Below is a map of the townships within the City of Chicago before the annexation of Lake View, Jefferson, Lake, and Hyde Park townships in 1889 - doubled the size of the city.
The City of Chicago was divided into three townships: 
South, West, and North with Lake View Township to its north
map - Chicago & Midwest/Newberry Library
The Park Administration in 1869
image - Chicago Tribune
Views from 1871
stereographs - Chicago & The Mid-West/Newberry Library
an apparent bird-eye view
North-Lake Shore Drive
The Board of Commissioners of Lincoln Park built a drive along the lake within the park ...
This post is my historical review of the relationship between two governmental units - Township/City of Lake View and the City of Chicago with the park, Lincoln Park
Lake View Township/City and the City of Chicago had joint responsibilities to the park from early 1870's to 1889 as well the financial burdens rested with Lake View Township/City along with the Township of North Chicago. After the annexation the 'old guard' of 5 members remained on the Board years after even after some bitter political infighting about representative taxation. In the early 1870's the expansion of the park was routed north of Webster Avenue to Fullerton and then to Diversey Avenue (Parkway). Fullerton Avenue as of 1853 was always the northern border of Chicago until the annexation of the City of Lake View in 1889. During this time period the park would be populated with monuments of literary masters of Europe that must have been approved by the Lincoln Board of Commissioners. When the park's geography was changed north of Fullerton Avenue the financial responsibility of the park was shared by the Township of Lake View and Chicago. The Lincoln Park  Commissioners remains as a functional entity but with much less political authority as it did the the 19th century. 
of 1898

This 1853 map highlights the area before the establishment
of Lake View Township (1857-87) & the park itself
map - University of Alabama Digital Collection 
via Phelps Fanning & Company
(Green Bay Road became Clark Street; Little Fort Road became Lincoln Avenue by the end of the 19th century.)
When the park space was established north of Fullerton Avenue the taxpayers of Lake View Township joined the taxpayers of North Chicago (near north Chicago) in paying the bills of expansion and the amenities within the park
Converting to more Park Space
Plan of Lincoln Park, Chicago: area, 250 acres /designed by O. Benson, landscape gardener and superintendent. Instead of the North and South Lagoons (original called The Canal') Lake Shore Drive would have had more protection for the unpredictable lake with 'break water' and a lake entrance parallel to Wisconsin Street
 a zoomed view from above map with a more zoomed view 
of the inlet/bridge area
Explore above map in more detail via University of Chicago
The overall design of the park would remain so until the mid 20th century with the expansion and widening of Lake Shore Drive. The entire layout of park was altered to accommodated Lake Shore Drive
Chicago & The Mid-West/Newberry Library
a more detailed look of this sectional map
 via the link above
zoom 2
zoom 3 with a pier in view
Points of Significance:
 image 2
 image 3
 image 4
The Park in 1873
map from a book called Chicago Lake Shore Drive 
by Neal Simors & Bernard Judge
highlighting a Lake Shore Drive
 within the park space
Harper's Weekly 1887
image below - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
The Four Seasons in Lincoln Park
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
1893 stereo-view - Detroit Publishing
stereo-view Ebay
 postcard - part of my personal collection
 postcard - part of my personal collection
Kids surrounding 
the Bubbling Cup
1890's? photo - Chuckman Collection
in the Park
negatives - Chicago History Museum
the High Bridge and below it
Timeline Articles: 
that indicated the Chicago's vision/dream of a 'Drive'. 
The 'Drive' would be the driving force for an expanded park space beginning with ...
1867  The 'Avenue' along the Shore
1868 image - University of Chicago Digital Map Collection
This 1868 Charles Shober map shows the annexation of Chicago Cemetery and an apparent conversion of the old cemeteries below Lincoln Park. Zoom with a view of the this 1869 map that in detail highlights Lake View Township.
 Lake View gets their Pond: 
The North Pond 
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
1882  The linked road from the park to the 
Township of Lake View planned
This last article demonstrates that the township and years later the City of Lake View were interested in a roadway along the lakefront as well. Under the Lincoln Park Act of 1869 a small section of land that was currently part of the township (north of Fullerton Avenue to Diversey) was granted to the Lincoln Park Commission. Because of that the commissioners were chosen ... half from the City of Chicago and and the other half from the Township/City of Lake View so to supervise the expansion and maintenance of the park
& the planned 'drive' northward on planned land-filled space.
1877  Chicago Cemetery 
begins to disappear from the landscape
to Lake View Township
 O.W. Gray and Son via 1876 U. of Alabama Digital maps
These edited Chicago city maps shows the transformation from cemetery to more park space
The Ten Year Report

Erosion in 1887
text & map - Chicago Park District
The extension phases 1863-73 that expanded south to absorb the cemeteries and then northward toward the township
image - Art Institute of Chicago via Explore Chicago
Early Maps via Chicagology
 1863 to the right & 1870 to the left 
from North Avenue to Diversey Avenue
 the park in 1873 from North Avenue to Diversey
the park space in 1899
The original park space had neighbors to its' south - 
Chicago CemeteryCatholic Cemetery, and a smaller private 
Jewish cemetery that included a space for the confederate Civil War dead. The original space expanded first south so to absorb the former cemeteries. The Catholic Cemetery was the last piece to be annexed and converted into park space. The Catholic cardinals' residence marks the south end of their former cemetery and the then park space. 
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
Built on of the old Catholic Cemetery on North Avenue was the residence of of the first Catholic cardinal in Chicago, 
Archbishop Feehan (1880-1902) 
postcard - CashCow
Governance of the Park:
The Lincoln Park Board 
of Commissioners 
views north and south with a view of Ferris Wheel Park 
top photo toward the left of photo
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
They had their own police force
photo - Ravenswood-Lake View Community Collection
via Donald Lampert
and below via Jan Sterling
The Township of Lake View became a city for only two years between 1887-89. The city was annexed to the City of Chicago in June 1889. When the two year old city was annexed in 1889 the existing Lincoln Park board members became citizens of Chicago old habits die hard and their loyalties were squarely with the old city of Lake View and with its new political clout would be a force to be reckon within Chicago's city hall almost a decade after the political & geographical annexation
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
The image above is the first expenditure of the Lincoln Board of Commissioners with resident of Lake View Township - John B Turner as its treasurer
above image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
the below image is of the driveways - Ebay
The Trees within the Park
text below - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
Café Brauer in 1882
The City of Chicago and the Township of Lake View 
border was Fullerton Avenue. The North Division was once North Chicago Township
In 1887 May 
 The article below is about a plan 
to create a breakwater
1887 December
Citizens of the City of Lake View
 begin to complain about the park's levies (taxes)

Chicago Inter Ocean Magazine 1887 
this 11x17 sized page is part of my collection
The Park Tax Summary
that indicates what jurisdiction paid for the park
(click to enlarge image)
existing shoreline before the construction of the outer drive & Sheridan Road via this 1894 Sanborn Fire Map
image - University of Alabama Digital Maps
This edited 1889 shows the park and the then southern section of City of Lake View (1887-1889). While the park was geographically part of the City of Chicago the administration of the park was still governed by the Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners 
the Board is still in existence today. 
a 1893 Rand McNalley map zoomed
map - University of Chicago Digital Maps
The original lakeside road through the park was called 'Breakwater Carriage Drive and Sidewalk Drive' and created as a sorta land-made protection from the storms of the lake
View of roadway between the lagoons & lake from the then existing 'High Bridge' pictured in 1908. The bridge was demo'ed in 1909.
postcard - Ebay 
and a closer view below toward Diversey Street (Parkway)
image University of Chicago Digital Collection
The blueprint lithograph - mid 1880's. The park is extended to Diversey Street (Parkway) with plans to establish a lagoon at Diversey and Belmont Avenues. Diversey was to be the final parks/boulevard link of the city's established boulevard system 
- it did not happen due to citizen/business opposition.
The original entrance to the park at St. James Place
 images - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
  photo above Detroit Publishing via Ebay
below image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
Battle within the Board in 1894
The representatives from old Lake View were not happy
 below image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'

The 'Outer Drive' Moves 
North in 1894 
the boardwalk along the lakefront
No Pier Allowed in 1894
District of Lake View Demands Road Expansion
in 1894
the Boardwalk fence was located just 
south of Diversey to about Grace Street
Robert Cavelier de La Salle Monument via Ebay
all the monuments were within circular configurations 
along the gravel paths
 postcard postmarked from the postal station 
from in the Old Town Hall pre 1907- Ebay
Glass Plates
popular between 1880's til 1920's
 part of my personal Lake View collection
A Representation Battle 
in 1897
below image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
part of my collection
 The 4th of July Fun
 in 1897
with the High Bridge in the background
Chicago Tribune images from Tommy Henry 
via Forgotten Chicago Discussion Group
Compromise Reached in 1897
Lake View gets Representation Once More
above image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
1899 - Chicago History Muesum
below image of the park unknow date - Ebay
 the ponds and land surrounding them
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
photo: Detroit Publishing Co., Publisher. [Chicago, Ill., the lagoon, Lincoln Park] [between and 1910, 1890] 
image - Library of Congress
In 1877, Birch Canal was created, connecting Lincoln Park’s North Pond to other water-bodies, which were later reshaped and designated the Swan Pond and Waterfowl Lagoon. Around these constructed water features, several animal enclosures and buildings were built, and the zoo evolved to include Victorian gardens, undulating topography, meandering paths, rustic bridges, and stands of mature trees. Rather than being set apart from the larger Lincoln Park landscape, the zoological collections were integrated into the park without fences or admission fees. By the early 1900's, enclosures for bears, bison, birds, and sea lions were complemented by pavilions, restaurants, comfort stations, and the Prairie-style Café Brauer, designed by Dwight Perkins and completed in 1908.
'Boat Harbor' probably along the canal
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
probably a photo of the Water Station used to maintain 
the property grounds within the park
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
1891 photo - Chicago History Museum
The Palm House
Chicago, The Garden City by Andreas Simon 1892 
via Forgotten Books in 1995
 view from the 
the original animal house
images - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
along with a small building

photo of visitors in 1900 - Chicago History Museum
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
the zoo inventory by 1899
the first animal was a bear purchased in 1874
image below - Chicago History Museum
Animals roam the grounds
More Animals added by 1888
The City takes claim to the Waters 
off the Shoreline by 1889
below image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
  The Lincoln Park Police Force
(click to enlarge)
images - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
Bridges in the Park
below 1893 postcard - Ebay

The High Bridge 1894-1919
crossing Lake Shore Drive to the waters edge
2 page photo - Chicago Lake Shore Drive 
by Neal Simors & Bernard Judge
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
The High Bridge was located between North and Fullerton Avenues It was coined "Suicide Bridge" due to the number of folks jumping off the bridge into the lagoon to their deaths
It would appear that this bridge was near Fullerton Avenue due ot the promixity to the Lincoln Park Sanitarium
a view south from the bridge
photo - University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign
canoeing in 1906 with the High Bridge in the background
Chicago History Museum via Explore Chicago Collection
Negatives - Chicago History Museum
with a views below of the south lagoon & Lake Shore Drive
Excursion Ride
 to the Park
1900 photo - Detroit Publishing via Amazon
Limits of the park and North Lake Shore Drive
was at Fullerton Avenue - see steam boat on one side and the Daily News Sanitarium on the other.
the 1900 photo taken from the High Bridge
also from the 1900 photo folks debarking from boats.
both photos - Chicago Lake Shore Drive 
by Neal Simors & Bernard Judge
heading down from the High Bridge to the ferry
 Taxes Should be Raised
 in 1901
from the property taxpayers
The Chicago Academy of Sciences
This is the second building opened in 1894
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
 Asking Lake View 
to Vote for Tax Increase 
in 1902 
photos - Ebay
Concession Stand in 1902
photo via Southport Corridor News & Events
Canoes in the Lagoon 
in 1902

 part 2
1903 negative - Chicago History Museum
This 1897-99 Rand McNally map 
University of Chicago Digital Collection
This map indicates the proposed extension of the park northward to Belmont Avenue The Diversey & Belmont lagoons were planned. Belmont and Diversey would become 'Yacht Harbors'. Belmont's opened to the public in 1913.
 Architecture Antique Art 1902 
Purchase of land to Diversey 
in 1903
in 1903
photos from the booklet
postcard - Ebay
1905 photo - Chicago History Museum
 Canoe and Boat Club 
by 1908

Chicago History Museum 
1906 Negatives
Old Lake View 
still Pays for the Park
Lake View, even after the annexation of 1889, still paid for the improvements at Lincoln Park along with citizens of northern Chicago (North Chicago Township). The State of Illinois law of 1869 dictates that these two governmental entities North Chicago Township & Lake View Township are obligated to use their property assessment tactics to collect.

 images - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
A Revenue Request in 1900

A Visitor in the Park ...

the inscription in the back of one of the photos
and part of my personal collection
Vintage Postcards of the Park 
from my personal collection from 1890's to 1910's

Landmarks in the Park 
in 1902
Lake Michigan Coast Chart in 1903
This map shows the existing lakefront and the ....
(Facebook album)
New Shoreline Proposed 
in 1904
north of Diversey to Belmont 

Mitchell's Real Estate Map of Chicago

 and Suburbs 1903

from Fullerton Avenue to Cornelia
A  Planned Bathing Beach 
set for Fullerton to Diversey in 1910
Land Limits of Lincoln Park
 by the 1920's
source unknown
Belmont Yacht Harbor was opened to the public in 1916 with the park space only reaching to Cornelia Avenue
a zoomed view below
negatives - Chicago History Museum
pumping the water northward 
A Map View
apparent publication in 1913-1915
message from the seller to me
1911 U.S. Engineer Department Map
This is a 1911 U.S. Engineer Department map of the 
existing lakefront. The blue area indicated a depth of 10 feet of water, pinkish area indicate at least 21 feet, and the outer green more than 21 feet. The park ended at Diversey. 
images - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
(click on image to enlarge)
page 2

page 3

 page 4
 page 5

 page 6
 page 8
The Shoreline Construction
by the City of Chicago
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
a 1898 storm destroyed everything along the shoreline.
A  seawall on along the shoreline along with RR tracks that were mounted on it was damaged.
'The process of planning, development and construction of the lakefront took place over several decades. Shoreline expansion started in the 1890's in the areas that would become Grant Park and Streeterville. However, the major shoreline expansion took place between 1920 and 1940. The process of building out the land along the Lake Michigan shoreline involved driving an outer line of bulkheads away from the original shoreline and then filling behind it with material dredged from the Lake Michigan bottom, sand from the Indiana shoreline, general construction debris, alley waste and even debris from the Chicago Fire, in places up to a mile away from the original shoreline. In 1910, the construction of the existing shoreline protection structures began. From 1910 to 1931, the shoreline protection structures were built along the lakefront from the north side of the city to the south always with the hope of containment.
Snippet of News in 1902
from Richards Tourist Guide to Chicago
plan to expand to Cornelia Avenue
Chicago History Museum 
strolling near the boathouse - north pond 1906
inside the conservatory 1906
a lily pond 1908
Schiller Monument dedication 1909
These two shoreline maps that I bought from Ebay represent the northward expansion of Lincoln Park first to Cornelia Street in 1918 and then to almost Montrose Avenue by 1926.
Once the park extended northward from Fullerton Avenue by 1870 the cost of maintenance of the park along with the addition of amenities such as monuments, zoo grounds, conservatory area became the responsibility of the property taxpayers of the Township/City of Lake View as well as the taxpayers of North Chicago Township (northern Chicago).
 1918 map with a zoomed view below
second map

 1926 map with a zoomed view below
North-Lake Shore Drive
The other responsibility of the Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners was the construction of a roadway along the lakefront. We know this road as Lake Shore Drive.
(click to enlarge image)
images - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
Expansion by 1916
 images - Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners Report 
The Park by 1927
view is north of North Avenue
 view of the original baseball diamonds
1927 photos - Vibecke Knudtzon Gausel‎ 
via Pictures of Chicago-Facebook
view of the original Lake Shore Drive and original canal 
WPA Project 1937-1942
A More Direct Roadway Link Though the Park
It finally took destructive storms in 1929 in both Spring and Autumn along with stimulus monies during the depression of the 1930's to realign a more direct roadway link around the park. This new link finally and directly link-up the Loop area of the city to its northernmost point at the time, Foster Avenue. City planners would use the existing 'Break Water and Carriage Drive' as the new extension of Lake Shore Drive. The federal government granted construction aid between 1937-1942 to not only widen but expand further the 'Drive' along the shore. The federal dollars were used to realign the existing park making it more car-friendly. These monies today would be called stimulus package from the Federal government in Washington DC.
 Pre-realigned image of the park space as of 1935
Lincoln Park realignment by 1942 post alignment
- both photos Hidden Truth
So, by 1942 parkland and harbors were created by landfill along the man-made shoreline with governmental assistance where, at one time, there were cliff formations, small bluffs, and 
street-end beaches (my other blog post). 
Maintenance of the Boulevards
The Lincoln Park Zoo
1902 photo - Chicago History Museum 
via Explore Chicago Collection
1903 photo - Chicago History Museum 
via Explore Chicago Collection
Cy DeVry feeding a peccary from a bottle in 1903 
Chicago History Museum via Explore Chicago Collection
1909 photo - Chicago History Museum 
via Explore Chicago Collection
'The zoo was founded in 1868, when the Lincoln Park [Board of] Commissioners were given a gift of a pair of swans by Central Park's Board of Commissioners - New York City. In 1874 the swans were joined by a bear cub from the Philadelphia Zoo; the first animal purchased for the zoo. The bear became quite adept at escaping from its' home and could frequently be found roaming Lincoln Park at night.' [from 1873 Chicago & Lake View Township had joint responsibility of the park/zoo through the Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners] - Wikipedia edited
image below - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
Population of the Zoo in 1893
Chicago, The Garden City by Andreas Simon 1893
Another Perspective in 1899

 images - Lincoln Park 1899

Contributions to the Zoo in 1899
page 2
postcard - Ebay
The Zoo Keeper - The Boss
one of the most dominate figures of the park
 below photo - Chicago History Museum
via Explore Chicago Collection
An Account 1893
Chicago:The Garden City by Andreas Simon  
Mr. W.C.Goudy was a resident of Lake View Township who was the first president of the original Lincoln Park Board
 Some Early Postcards of the Zoo
from my personal collection

The Conservatory

 images - Chicago, The Garden City by Andrea's Simon 
The original conservatory was called the 'Palm House' 
- to the right of this photo with its outside garden space

A New Palm House
the new building, constructed by 1893
 image - Chicago, The Garden City by Andrea's Simon
An Artist View in 1890
the architect was Joseph Lyman Silsbee
image - Art Institute of Chicago
‘The Lincoln Park Commission constructed the Lincoln Park Conservatory in phases between 1890 and 1895, replacing a small greenhouse that dated from the 1870's. Nationally renowned architect Joseph Lyman Silsbee designed the Conservatory in collaboration with architect M.E. Bell. A "paradise under glass," the Conservatory supported "a luxuriant tropical growth, blending the whole into a natural grouping of Nature’s loveliest forms. "Historically, aquatic plants propagated in tanks in the Conservatory were planted outside, in artificially-heated lily ponds. The exotic plants were so popular that in 1897 the Egyptian government requested seeds from Lincoln Park's water lilies. The rocky-edged ponds once meandered along what is now the fence line of the Lincoln Park Zoo.’ 
- Chicago Park District
postcard view below - Benjamin Yolarski ‎via 'Chicagoland Before We Were Born'-Facebook in 1910 

The Floral Report by 1899
 images - Lincoln Park 1899
postmarked 1910 - part of my collection
1902 photo inside the new building
photo - Chicago History Museum 
via Explore Chicago Collection
 photo - Chicago History Museum 
via Explore Chicago Collection
1903 photo inside the new building
photo - Chicago History Museum 
via Explore Chicago Collection
The Garden Report
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
 this is the first page of a total 24 pages on the subject
Lake View & the Outer Drive
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
The plan began in 1874 but noting was accomplish 
with a little bit of drama mixed in ...
The Park by 1899
take a closer view from the link above
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
A Postcard View
before the re-configuration of the 1940's
The Monuments in the Park
image - Chicagoan
These monuments mentioned in the post were mostly commissioned and installed prior to 1910. The administration of the park was shared with the citizens of old Lake View and the rest of Chicago while the revenue for the park was raised and administered by the residents of assessment district of Lake View & North Chicago Townships This arranged began when the Lincoln Park of Commissioners (governing body) expanded the park space north of Fullerton Avenue northward. The governmental integration of the old township with the City of Chicago probably took a decade or more to resolve. The Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners to this day still hold meetings probably less argumentatively from the days of battling riparian rights, outer drive plans, and the battles of power & influence of the 19th century tribal politics.
The Dedication of Monuments 
in 1895
(click image to enlarge)
page 2 
 page 3
 page 4
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'

The Future:
A 1923 map of the park 
showing Montrose Harbor as planned
(click on map to enlarge)
Lincoln Park ends 
at Montrose Avenue by 1925
photo - Chicago & The Mid-West/Newberry Library
List of Monuments 
of Lincoln Park:
The Alarm 1884
Lake View Township
photo above -  Alan Scott Walker
photo below - Calumet 412
Johann C. Friedrich Von Schiller 1886
photo - Wikimedia Commons
Lake View Township
photo - Andrew Horne
Lake View Township
District of Lake View 
due to the annexation of the City of Lake View in 1889
photo - Public Art of Chicago
1900 photo - Benjamin Yolarski‎ via 'Chicagoland Before We Were Born'-Facebook
Signal of Peace 1894
within the neighborhood of Lake View 
photo above - Allan Scott Walker
photo below - Equestrian Statues 
Robert Cavalier de LaSalle 1889
image - Allan Scott Walker
Carl von Linné Monument 1891
Originally located on Fullerton Avenue in the park north the 
original conservatory once called 'The Palm House'
and moved to Midway Plaisance in 1976.
postcard - Ebay
photo - Jennifer Ames
Hans Christian Andersen 1896
photo - Allan Scott Walker
Benjamin Franklin 1896
photo - Allan Scott Walker
Other Notable Monuments 
after 1900:
a gateway to neighborhood of Lake View to the south
photo - Public Art in Chicago
a postcard view of the installation celebration below
photo - Alan Scott Walker
photo - Alan Scott Walker
photo - Andrew Home
photo - Tutt's Art
photo - John Angel
the first version
postcard - Ebay
the second version
photo - Alan Scott Walker
Monuments Once Located
in the Park
photos - The Chicago & Midwest/Newberry Library
Guiseppi Garibaldi Monument
Ludwig van Beethoven Monument
A Good Resource 
on these Monuments
 from my collection
The Drainage Ditch 
through Lincoln Park
The Lake Shore Ditch 
between 1850-1855
While looking at some vintage maps of the second half of the 19th century I continued to see this line in each map called the 'Lake View Ditch' to be later referred to as the '10 mile ditch' due to the fact it stretched from Township of Evanston (Devon Avenue was the border at the time) to northern Chicago. The ditch was a water/drainage ditch that worked as a sewer from constant storms from Lake Michigan overflow. The drainage ditch dug initially meant to keep the land in particular Chicago Cemetery dry as well as the Catholic & Jewish areas.
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
The location of a cemetery along the lakefront may have seen scenic but it became apparent that it did not work-out so well when the winds & waves of the lake would crash to the shore sometimes with vengeance during a storm. The dirt covering the remains of loved ones would wash away and the interred would surface. After a while the medical field discovered the connection between interred and lake drinking water. The interred were removed from the city limits into cemeteries of the Township of Lake View beginning in the late 1850's. The ditch became obsolete covered & forgotten.
a David Rumsey map 1869 edit
the red highlighted area indicate the border 
between City of Chicago & Lake View Township
In 1869 the park was governed by the Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners. In accordance to a 1869 map the 10 mile ditch stretched from North Avenue through the original/initial  the park area toward & through southern portion of Lake View Township ending apparently north of Wilson Avenue. 
this is zoomed view of David Rumsey 1869 map edit highlights the continued route of 'Lake Shore Ditch' through the township as well a roadway called 'Lake Shore Plank Road' known day as Broadway. The zoomed David Ramsey map below has the ditch fading away somewhere north of Wilson Avenue once known as Shippey Road. I have published a post about the cemeteries that were established in Lake View Township that was a direct connection to the failed location of cemeteries along the existing lakeshore called Cemeteries of Old Lake View. It is my contention that old Lake View would have been a ‘back-water’ township for several more decades and its interest to annexation to the City of Chicago delayed or non-existent. 
The Park Plan Expansion to
Belmont Avenue in 1893
this 1913-15 map of the proposed extension of the park 
is part of my collection
The Equipment used 
to move the water
Lake View Still Paying 
for the Park in 1916
 images - Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners Report 1913-1916
Still the Taxing Authority 
at the Northside

 Lincoln Park 
Postcard Views
all from my private collection
Most the stereoscopic pictures and postcards date between the 1890's to 1910's during a time when property taxpayers and bondholders of Lake View Township and North Chicago Township had influence in the administration of the park and paid for it from 1870 
til the turn of the 20th century. 
*all of the images can be viewed in my private collection post*
 the lagoons were apparently once referred to as the 'canal'
 a wooden bridge - 1870's according to Ebay

Winter Scenes

Lincoln Park Conservatory
all part of my personal collection
a stereograph image - front and back
scene of garden from the Palm House-Conservatory
The original name of the Conservatory was the Palm House
men in the the Palm House
this photo looking south of the Palm House which was the original name of the current conservatory building 
the second building that was once called the Palm House

Lincoln Park Zoo
from 1870-1910ish
all part of my personal collection
'The zoo was founded in 1868, when the Lincoln Park Commissioners were given a gift of a pair of swans by Central Park's Board of Commissioners in New York City. Other animals were soon donated to the park, including, a puma, two elk, three wolves, four eagles, & eight peacocks. In 1874, a bear cub from the Philadelphia Zoo was the first animal purchased by the zoo. The bear became quite adept at escaping from its home and could frequently be found roaming Lincoln Park at night. In 1884, reportedly the first American bison born in captivity was born at the Lincoln Park Zoo. At this time, the species had almost been hunted to extinction in the wild so in 1896, the United States government bought one bull and seven cows from the Zoo's bison herd to send to Yellowstone National Park to assist in the species' revival.' - Wikipedia

is actually a Axis Deer (also known as Chital) from India according to Peter Boul, a member of the Ravenswood-Lake View Historical Association. He states that the author Robert May, the author of the book 'Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer', observed them at Lincoln Park zoo and was inspired to write the song we know today.

The Monuments 
of Lincoln Park:
all part of my personal collection
11x17 full page - Harper's Weekly 1887
 The Abraham Lincoln Monument
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Monument 
The Alarm
This monument was called 
Ottawa Indian Monument
originally called The Indian Monument
another view of it
Its' Bronze Reliefs
photo - Chiago & The Mid-West/Newberry Library
photographed prior to 1925
Signal of Peace
 Shakespeare Monument
The Eugene Field Monument
 Ulysses S. Grant Monument

Hans Christian Andersen Monument 
 Robert Cavelier de LaSalle Monument
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller Monument
Robert Cavelier de LaSalle Monument

at another angle
The monuments would be surrounded by a path
 for walkers and horse & carriage
Benjamin Franklin Monument
 The Missing Monuments of Lincoln Park
part of my collection
photo - Ron Tamulis 1897 
Chicago Before You Were Born/Facebook 
Carl von Linné Monument
relocated to Midway Plaisance in 1976 
'The Santiago Cuba Cannon'
The Complete List:
 lost/removed monuments
according to 'Giants at the Park'
image - Asian Pacific American Advocates/OCA-California 
another view of it 
via Ebay

 part of my personal collection
and this unidentified monument below
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
The High Bridge of Lincoln Park
1894 -1919
a zoomed view below
above is a 1919 aerial map of its location
the postcards are part of my personal collection
This bridge was once located a few blocks south of Fullerton Avenue.  The High Bridge earned a new infamous name of 'Suicide Bridge' due to the high volume of lives lost per week. 
The bridge was demolished in 1919
a Suicide in 1897
Just Passing Though the Park
View of Lake Shore Drive from the Bridge
In the 19th century this road was called
'Breakwater and Carriage Drive' 

View of the Lagoon from the High Bridge
now regarded as the South Pond
a photographic view from the bridge - Ebay
zoomed text below
Excursion off the Lakefront
 Once located between of North Avenue & Fullerton
Its probable location ...
(see pier to the right)

The Plan in 1928
from Belmont Harbor to Devon Avenue
The Postcards of
Street-End Beaches & City Harbors:
all from my personal collection
 Fullerton Avenue Bathing Beach
only for children and observing mothers
Diversey Avenue Bathing Beach
the entrance to Diversey Harbor ...
Clarendon Municipal Bathing Beach

Wilson Avenue Bathing Beach 
This was a members only beach, hence private
Montrose-Wilson Bathing Beach
Edgewater Beach & Hotel 
The Daily News Sanitarium
(researched article)
 Established in 1887 in the Township of Lake View north of the existing park, Lincoln Park, just north of Fullerton Avenue
The Harbors in Our Area:
Diversey Harbor
Montrose Harbor
a view of Montrose Harbor from Irving Park Road
Another Lincoln Park Connection ...
The Lake Shore (drainage) Ditch
This ditch was constructed shortly after 1869 and began in the Chicago Cemetery (original Lincoln Park, the park) and was routed northwest to somewhere near Wilson Avenue - that was probably called Washington Street at the time. The ditch disappeared from maps by last quarter of the 19th century filled in and forgotten.
text - 1869 Illinois Laws excerpt
What this ditch may have look like
above photo - Washington Post
below photo - Lanes for Drains
Map of the Lake Shore Ditch
Rufus Blanchard 1869 map - edited sectionals
above is the overall view of Lake View Township

What was our drainage ditch called & purpose?

swale is like a ditch but it's broad and shallow, and usually covered or lined with turfgrass or other vegetation. The purpose is to slow and control the flow of water to prevent flooding, puddling, and erosion and/or avoid overwhelming the storm drain system. 

How do drainage ditches help us?

Subsurface drainage to ditches offers a way to remove excess water from agricultural fields, or vital urban spaces, without the erosion rates and pollution transport that results from direct surface runoff. 

Where does rainwater drain to?

Surface water drainage ensures that any rainwater which runs off your property's roof or paved areas are drained away, to prevent flooding. Surface water is collected in drains and gullies to flow either into the public sewer system or a soak away.

Most of eastern Lake View like most of eastern Chicago was swampy in various spot locations. The main purpose of this particular ditch was to make the area less swampy and maybe also for agriculture use particularly in the northern section of the township where greenhouses were abundant. It must have been important enough to highlight in a map.

Editorial in 1927

via Chicagoan

Post Notes:

This WTTW video 
highlights how parks were designed for urban dwellers in America from the very beginning
Discover Endless Photos of the Park
There is an earlier version online about Lincoln Park 1894. 
Listen to a tale of the lost and forgotten burials in park. 
And finally view a good collection of postcards of the park from Chicago History in Postcards.
The Research 
of the Stereo-view Card
text from seller on Ebay
this stereo-card is part of my collection
"Edward Lovejoy and Henry Foster were only in business as a united front until around 1878. with first noted record of registration together showing up in 1866 (although they very well may have been together before this). By 1880 Lovejoy was registering on his own; although some stereos dated during the first few years of the 1880's have the Lovejoy & Foster label. However, it is thought the photos were actually taken a few years earlier and were only being sold this way due to licensing. Foster may not have even ever taken a photo himself actually. This is on yellow card, which usually dates from 1861-1870 and has rounded corners which usually dates from 1868-1890; although these are not hard and fast, just the traditional dates that the vast majority out there fall into. Some rounded corners are earlier and later and yellow does show up later, normally old new stock, and in some respects earlier. The same goes true for the normal dates and colors for flat mount and curved mount and some flat mounts have curved with age and some originally had a slight curve, but do not fall into curved. Also, the print type also helps to narrow down dates; but in this case these types were done at varying points for the duration of stereoview manufacturing. Anyways, after researching it this way I began to look at photos of the park from this time period and got conflicting dates, so I finally contacted an couple of historical societies in the area and got a date from them as the last half of the 1860's and late 1860's to early 1870's; so I reverted back to the traditional dates of the stereo construction to narrow down the dates to the 1860's, second half. Sometimes with photos I have to narrow it down in a few ways and rely on others, who have info about the area or the subject. If this decade is in correct, I would love to know." - Cheers, Lee & Lynn

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These posts are exclusively used for educational purposes. I do not wish to gain monetary profit from this blog nor should anyone else without permission for the original source - thanks!