Paid by the Taxpayers/Bondholders of Lake View & North Chicago Townships
The inital expansion of Lincoln Park northward was due to the financial support of North Chicago Township's (northern Chicago) property owners & bond-holders and the same type of citizens from the Township/City/District of Lake View
photo - part of my collection
The topography that existed prior to the late 19th century when there were bluffs overlooking the lake were the norm in particularly from Lake View Township/City northward. The resort or summer villa that coined the township, the Lake View House (hotel) faced the lakefront overlooking a bluff probably stretching north beyond Montrose Avenue - apparently one of many.
Welcome to Lincoln Park,
the Park along the Lake
postcard from my collection
Before the annexation of 1889 the citizens of both Township/City of Lake View and the Township of North Chicago paid for the maintenance of the park space though property taxation and bond issurances. A special authority called the Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners governed the expansion northward. The members of this commission were prominent citizens of both townships
and part of my collection
images -'Lincoln Park 1899'
This book highlights the relationship with park called Lincoln and the township/city of Lake View from its early days in accordance to the publication of this book in 1899, a good read. The book was published as an report of the progress made that year. The first section is a comprehensive history of the park followed by sections about the history of Lake Shore Drive along with smaller sections about the Animal Department & Floral Departments within the park space. (click on below image to enlarge)
North Chicago was a township in Illinois before it annex to the City of Chicago. The City of Chicago bought land east of Lake View Avenue before Lake View was a township in Cook County
Lake Park to Lincoln Park
who paid ...
A Map View Before the Park
A 1855 Lowe map - zoomed
image - Barry Lawrence Rudman
another view of the area in 1863 below
This 1863 Charles Shober map shows the original park space (yellow), Chicago Cemetery (green), and Catholic Cemetery (yellow) south of the park space.
map - University of Chicago Digital Map Collection
The zoomed version of the 1863 map of the original park space shows rain water drainage system called
Lake Shore Ditch later be called the '10 mile itch'. This ditch was designed to drain the swamp-like environment of the area. This drainage ditch stretched through Lake view
view of the original park space
image - The Cultural Landmark Fountain
This original park space was called 'Lake Park'
prior to the assassination of Abraham Lincoln
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
The governance of Lincoln Park was established by the State of Illinois in 1869 even though the park was created years before. This small park would a decade later absorbed the 60 acre cemetery called simply 'Chicago Cemetery' as well as the existing Catholic and Jewish cemeteries. Later in the 20th century the park space would expand northward along the lakefront. The Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners, the governing body for the parkland and the roadways along the lakefront, planned for the park's expansion northward along with the expansion of 'North-Lake Shore Drive' north of the park. The Board of 5 members would link the then 120 acre park with Chicago's neighbor to the north - the Township of Lake View by the early 1870's. While the membership of the Board was split between political representatives of Chicago & Lake View Township the maintenance and expansion revenue was split between two township assessors, Lake View and North Chicago townships (northern Chicago). Early Chicago was comprised of North, West, & South Chicago townships - all current taxing bodies for property assessment to this day even though there has been several attempts to abolish this unit of government - one of the oldest forms of governance in Illinois as well as in many eastern states.
The Topography of the Park by 1860
The Political Father
of Lincoln Park
a 1866 view of the park
image - Calumet 412
Not to be Overlook
appeared in Harper's Weekly in November 1871
wood-carving - Ebay
The fire of 1871 was another connection to the Township of Lake View and its residents. The fire crossed the border (Fullerton Avenue) a block or two along the lakefront forcing Chicagoans to find safe-harbor in the township until the rains ended this tragedy.
illustration below - Chicago Rebuilt 1875
The Land North
of Fullerton Avenue
The city of Chicago bought a section of area belonging to Ridgeville Township (1850-57). Lake View Township, a subsection of the old township, was not established not until 1857. At this time the original park was located south of Webster Place.
Note: Ridgeville Township composed of the areas of
South Evanston and Lake View townships.
This 1887 map shows the land purchased
by the City of Chicago in 1852
This areas' shoreline was still dictated by the winds/sands of the lake
images - Historical Map Works
with zoomed images below
In 1853 the State of Illinois granted Chicago land from North to Fullerton avenues setting the stage for the ownership of Lincoln Park, the park. This area was known as North Chicago Township that still serves as a property taxing body in Illinois. With the establishment of Lincoln Park as a park the citizens of North Chicago Township paid the total cost of maintenance for the park land. When the park extended northward past Fullerton Avenue the citizens of both North Chicago and the Township of Lake View paid for the park. The City of Chicago would only agree to contribute cost for police protection for the park. The cost matrix's of the park would change in the 20th century where by the citizens of Chicago would pay for the total costs of the ever expanding park under the authority of City of Chicago and still under the authority the
Below is a map of the townships within the City of Chicago before the annexation of Lake View, Jefferson, Lake, and Hyde Park townships in 1889 - doubled the size of the city.
The City of Chicago was divided into three townships:
South, West, and North with Lake View Township to its north
map - Chicago & Midwest/Newberry Library
The Park Administration in 1869
image - Chicago Tribune
North-Lake Shore Drive
The Board of Commissioners of Lincoln Park built a drive along the lake within the park ...
This post is my historical review of the relationship between two governmental units - Township/City of Lake View and the City of Chicago with the park, Lincoln Park.
Lake View Township/City and the City of Chicago had joint responsibilities to the park from early 1870's to 1889 as well the financial burdens rested with Lake View Township/City along with the Township of North Chicago. After the annexation the 'old guard' of 5 members remained on the Board years after even after some bitter political infighting about representative taxation. In the early 1870's the expansion of the park was routed north of Webster Avenue to Fullerton and then to Diversey Avenue (Parkway). Fullerton Avenue as of 1853 was always the northern border of Chicago until the annexation of the City of Lake View in 1889. During this time period the park would be populated with monuments of literary masters of Europe that must have been approved by the Lincoln Board of Commissioners. When the park's geography was changed north of Fullerton Avenue the financial responsibility of the park was shared by the Township of Lake View and Chicago. The Lincoln Park Commissioners remains as a functional entity but with much less political authority as it did the the 19th century.
This 1853 map highlights the area before the establishment
of Lake View Township (1857-87) & the park itself
map - University of Alabama Digital Collection
via Phelps Fanning & Company
(Green Bay Road became Clark Street; Little Fort Road became Lincoln Avenue by the end of the 19th century.)
When the park space was established north of Fullerton Avenue the taxpayers of Lake View Township joined the taxpayers of North Chicago (near north Chicago) in paying the bills of expansion and the amenities within the park
Converting to more Park Space
Plan of Lincoln Park, Chicago: area, 250 acres /designed by O. Benson, landscape gardener and superintendent. Instead of the North and South Lagoons (original called The Canal') Lake Shore Drive would have had more protection for the unpredictable lake with 'break water' and a lake entrance parallel to Wisconsin Street
a zoomed view from above map with a more zoomed view
of the inlet/bridge area
Explore above map in more detail via University of Chicago
The overall design of the park would remain so until the mid 20th century with the expansion and widening of Lake Shore Drive. The entire layout of park was altered to accommodated Lake Shore Drive
an apparent 3 stage plan
from the Chicago River to Devon Avenue
a more detailed look of this sectional map
via the link above
zoom 3 with a pier in view
Points of Significance:
The Park in 1871
the year of the Great Chicago Fire
stereographs - The Chicago & Midwest/Newberry Library
The Park in 1873
map from a book called Chicago Lake Shore Drive
by Neal Simors & Bernard Judge
highlighting a Lake Shore Drive
Harper's Weekly 1887
image below - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
The Four Seasons in Lincoln Park
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
1893 stereo-view - Detroit Publishing
postcard - part of my personal collection
postcard - part of my personal collection
Winter in the Park
negatives - Chicago History Museum
the High Bridge and below itTimeline Articles:
Governance of the Park:
The Lincoln Park Board
top photo toward the left of photo
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
They had their own police force
photo - Ravenswood-Lake View Community Collection
and below via Jan Sterling
The Township of Lake View became a city for only two years between 1887-89. The city was annexed to the City of Chicago in June 1889. When the two year old city was annexed in 1889 the existing Lincoln Park board members became citizens of Chicago old habits die hard and their loyalties were squarely with the old city of Lake View and with its new political clout would be a force to be reckon within Chicago's city hall almost a decade after the political & geographical annexation
image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
The image above is the first expenditure of the Lincoln Board of Commissioners with resident of Lake View Township - John B Turner as its treasurer
above image - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
the below image is of the driveways - Ebay
The Trees within the Park
text below - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
Café Brauer in 1882
The City of Chicago and the Township of Lake View
border was Fullerton Avenue. The North Division was once North Chicago Township
In 1887 May
The article below is about a plan
to create a breakwater
Citizens of the City of Lake View
begin to complain about the park's levies (taxes)
Chicago Inter Ocean Magazine 1887
this 11x17 sized page is part of my collection
The Park Tax Summary
that indicates what jurisdiction paid for the park
(click to enlarge image)
existing shoreline before the construction of the outer drive & Sheridan Road via this 1894 Sanborn Fire Map
image - University of Alabama Digital Maps
This edited 1889 shows the park and the then southern section of City of Lake View (1887-1889). While the park was geographically part of the City of Chicago the administration of the park was still governed by the Lincoln Park Board of Commissioners
a 1893 Rand McNalley map zoomed
map - University of Chicago Digital Maps
The original lakeside road through the park was called 'Breakwater Carriage Drive and Sidewalk Drive' and created as a sorta land-made protection from the storms of the lake
View of roadway between the lagoons & lake from the then existing 'High Bridge' pictured in 1908. The bridge was demo'ed in 1909.
postcard - Ebay
and a closer view below toward Diversey Street (Parkway)
image - University of Chicago Digital Collection
The blueprint lithograph - mid 1880's. The park is extended to Diversey Street (Parkway) with plans to establish a lagoon at Diversey and Belmont Avenues. Diversey was to be the final parks/boulevard link of the city's established boulevard system
- it did not happen due to citizen/business opposition.
The original entrance to the park at St. James Place
images - 'Lincoln Park 1899'
below photo - Detroit Publishing via Ebay
1893 map - Harvard University via Union News Company