Changes of Names & Places
The Roadway called Broadway
The map below is from the David Rumsey Map Collection. The author of the map was Rufus Blanchard who published this map in 1869 - the earlist map I found online for the Chicago area. zoomed view below
Lake Shore Plank Road was constructed apparently so travelers and visitors could reach the Lake View Hotel from the south and still be on 'high ground' much like Clark Street (former Green Bay Road) was for the Native America travelers prior to European settlements in this area. This roadway ended at the end of Lake View Township borderline, Devon Avenue. This was a time long before Sheridan Road and Lake Shore Drive - the inner or outer drive.
The first step in the establishment of any new community [or area of development] in the western wilderness (and yes, we were the 'west' to eastern’s) was ordinarily the laying out of a road. Indeed, the road usually preceded the settler, for without some avenue of entrance the immigrant could not get into the country at all. The streams would be bridged and the swamps corduroyed, while in timbered sections trees, and ultimately even stumps would be removed from the path.
Plank roads, according to Federal Highway Administration: Highway History, were somewhat revolutionary in the 18th and 19th century substituting muddy unleveled routes peppered with watered holes in the ground after a storm with something wooden strips of carved wood that was more visible and more level without the dangers of wagaon wheels stuck in watered holes. National newspapers helped spread the plank road craze. In 1847, Hunts Merchants Magazine published an article titled “Plank Roads-New Improvement according to a reading in Wikipedia.
Broadway had a few names to its history. The one controversal name was Dummy Road named after the mode of transportation used during the mid 19th century (see map above). According to my readings it would seem the name was NOT official and only used used by locals in a particular area of Broadway where the Dummy trains were used. Lake View Township School #1 known currently as Nettelhorst School was referred to as 'Dummy School' for awhile only because of the public means of transportation used during by the 1880's.The word 'dummy' referred to the first car of this railed train that operated by steam. The train car had a stretching sound along the rails - steel vs steel and puffed steam and smoked enough to frightened the most common means of transport, the horse. The manufacturers thought by disguising the streamed engine car the horse would accept its presence - an idea that had mixed results.
According to Edgewater Historical Society, ‘Green Bay, Wisconsin, as well as Chicago, Illinois, were important areas first to the Indians and later to the European settlers. To the Indigenous Peoples, Green Bay and Chicago were trading areas within the Great Lakes region. Both were portages between Lake Michigan and river systems, making them natural trading centers. In the era of European and American settlement, these two trading posts were marked by forts. In Chicago it was Fort Dearborn and in Green Bay it was Fort Howard. To move from area to area the Indigenous Peoples established connecting trails between the two Euro settlements. Instances of northern settlement can be observed as early as the 1820’s. A mail route between the military posts at Green Bay and Chicago, over which a carrier passed once a month, was in use as early as 1825. The earliest descriptions of travel over the road, known as Green Bay Trail, are from the narratives of the mail carriers who, before the coming of the settlers, traversed the wilderness between Fort Howard in Green Bay, Wisconsin and Fort Dearborn in Chicago'.
Chicago bricks were tucked away on the back, sides, and interiors of buildings. In 1871 there were 5 brickyards in Cook County. By 1881 there were 60. By 1915, 10% of all brick made in America was made in Chicago. Chicago was transformed from a city of wood to a city of brick made of clay. The last Chicago Common brick maker was closed in 1981, no Chicago Common bricks have been made since.
Most of these brick manufacturing companies in the District of Lake View were generally located south of Wellington Avenue to just south of Diversey Parkway and from Southport Avenue to Paulina Avenue. Below are a few of them in the District of Lake View.