... and the River
This post includes how the land evolved through time; how mother nature did Chicago a favor; the original inhabiants; the Europeans that reached are shores; the cemeteries that influenced Lake View's developement; and the house that became a 'signature' hotel.
map - HathTrust.org
Read an extensive history on the era
map - Dearborn Magazine in 1922
About 14 thousand years ago during the tail end of the
last ice age the area of Lake View Township was under water.
Over three hundred million years ago our area of Illinois was covered with wetlands such as coastal swamps, deltas, and upland forests situated along an estuary bay and probably a much wider Chicago River. - Chicago History Museum
image - Illinois State Geological Survey
‘Illinois can boast a significant number of amphibians
and invertebrates dating to the Paleozoic Era (541,000,000 BC to
251,900,000), as well as a handful of Pleistocene periods (2,600,00 BC to
12,000 BC) pachyderms (Woolly Mammoths, Mastodons and other elephant type
mammals). For much of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras (250,000,000 BC to
2,000,000 BC), Illinois was geologically unproductive in that period hence the lack of
fossils dating from this vast expanse of time. However, conditions improved
tremendously during the Pleistocene period when herds of Woolly Mammoths and
American Mastodons tramped across this state's endless plains (and left
scattered fossil remains to be discovered, piecemeal, by 19th & 20th-century
image - Illinois State Geological Survey
Joe Devera, has been a geologist with the Illinois State
Geological Survey for over 30 years. "Other dinosaurs, such as T-Rex,
could be found in Illinois covered up by vegetation and soil.”’ - The Digital Research Library of Illinois
The Modern Era
The Chicago River flowed into Lake Michigan before 1900
In more ancient recent times, Lake Chicago also known as the Glacial Lake Chicago; term used by geologists for a lake that preceded Lake Michigan; was formed when the Wisconsin glacier retreated from the Chicago area, beginning about 14,000 years ago. Lake Chicago`s level, at its highest, was almost 60 feet higher than the level of present Lake Michigan and the lake completely covered the area now occupied by Chicago. Its northern outlet into the St. Lawrence River was still blocked by remnants of the glacier and it drained through the so-called Chicago outlet, a notch in the Valparaiso moraine, into the Mississippi system. Its western shores reached to where Oak Park and La Grange now exist.
"The region destined to be covered by metropolitan Chicago took natural form following the retreat of the North American ice cap 10,000 years ago. Meltwaters from the glacier's Lake Michigan Lobe, pent up for a time behind morainic ridges deposited at the ice sheet's margins, formed glacial Lake Chicago and drained southwestward, scouring what is today the lower Des Plaines valley. As ice receded and water drained away, Lake Michigan remained behind, contained within its modern shoreline. The area straddles what turned out to be a permanent low-lying continental drainage divide between the basins of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. The numerous lakes and marshes of the region represent the retreating glacier's messy legacy. By the early nineteenth century a tall-grass prairie environment covered much of the area, with thin strips of forest colonizing sandy beach ridges and shallow valley bluffs."
Author: Michael P. Conzen
Source: Newberry Library
The People Who Settled Here:
Tribes were more nomadic so did not believe in the tradition border locations like the European settlers would preferred.
Native Americans did not have set borders but moved around for hunting and agricultural survival. The Europeans did not quit understand this cultural difference.
Native American tribes in the United States are typically
divided into 8 distinct regions, within which tribes had some similarities
across culture, language, religion, customs and politics.
– Native Americans here had no need to farm as edible plants and animals were
plentiful in the land and sea. They are known for their totem poles, canoes
that could hold up to 50 people, and houses made of cedar planks.
Over 100 Native American tribes once lived there. They fished, hunted small
game, and gathered acorns, which were pounded into a mushy meal.
The Plateau -
The Plateau Native Americans lived in the area between Cascade Mountains and
the Rocky Mountains. To protect themselves from the cold weather, many built
homes that were partly underground.
The Great Basin
– Stretching across Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, the Native Americans of the
Great Basin had to endure a hot and dry climate and had to dig for a lot of
their food. They were one of the last groups to have contact with Europeans.
– The Natives of the Southwest created tiered homes made out of adobe bricks.
Many of the tribes had skilled farmers, grew crops, and created irrigation
canals. Famous tribes here include the Navajo Nation, the Apache, and the
The Native Americans of the Northeast lived in an area rich in rivers and
forests. Some groups were constantly on the move while others built permanent
The Plains –
The Great Plains Indians were known for hunting bison, buffalo and antelope,
which provided abundant food. They were nomadic people who lived in teepees and
they moved constantly following the herds. - Ancient Originals
by Vincenzo Coronelli mid 1690's
A 1688 Map listing Chicago
zoomed belowzoomed more belowtext below - Chicagology/Facebook
'Over the course of four distinct periods of glacial melting, stretching as far back as 14,500 years ago, Chicago’s terrain was shaped by the ebbs and flows of melting ice. Through the process of littoral drift, where small bits of sand and organic matter drifted from place to place on the tide, small but distinct ridges were etched into the land. Those natural high grounds, rising no more than 10 or 15 feet above the rest of the terrain, became some of the pathways used by Native peoples as they began to inhabit the area about 11,000 years ago.These high points held obvious value: most of the land was swampy, and very little stayed dry year-round. Indigenous tribes passed down their understanding of the land’s natural features through oral traditions. Incoming European settlers, including French trappers traveling to the area during the 17th and 18th centuries, depended on this knowledge for survival. They also quickly came to understand the significance of the trails, adapting them for commercial and military purposes.'
a zoomed view below with a settlement
by in the area of Clark, Diversey, Broadway
zoomed even further ...
(red line should be Clark Street)
DNAinfo articleIn 2013 artifacts were discovered within
the City of Chicago at Rosehill Cemetery
WEST RIDGE — Ancient artifacts from an
"enormous" Native American settlement were uncovered along a gravel
and sand ridge that passes through the land that is soon to become a city park
near Rosehill Cemetery, officials said. Phil Millhouse, an archeologist with
the Illinois Archeological Survey, said he and his colleagues performed
"shovel tests" on the site earlier this year when they came across
fragments of arrow points, knives, ceramics and possibly a cooking kit. "It turned out there was a very large prehistoric
village on that ridge of sand and gravel that runs off the lake," he said.
The "enormous" site surrounded by wetlands had been occupied possibly
thousands of years before Europeans settled the area.
image via Calumet 412
The above image shows (Evanston Road) Broadway and north of Lawrence Avenue indicates Clark Street as a high ridge path
early 19th century. Almost all of the mounds in the Chicago area were lost due to development and the lack of understanding of this cultural importance of the indigenous peoples of our area.
This illustration is an example of the markers or landmarks that Native Americans nurtured, more than likely indicate direction or some sort of sign language. Settlers simply called them 'Indian Tree'.
by WBEZ Chicago
an extensive & well researched article
The Native American burial mound apparently was once located between Oakdale & Wellington east of Sheffield according to this article by WBEZ
"Early settlers destroyed hundreds if not thousands of
ancient sculptures, along with the historical record. They plowed under mounds
to farm the land or leveled them and built homes on the sites. In some cases,
early settlers claimed to have asked local Native Americans about the origins
of the mounds without receiving a clear answer. John Low, a Potawatomi Indian
and professor of American Indian studies, says he’s suspicious of these
accounts given that they took place during a power struggle over land. “[The
Natives] may have said that because they aren’t going to share with people,
[who] they regard as the enemy, the special-ness they know about a site.”
- Read more from the above title link.
The Native American Tribes
& U.S. Territories in 1812
a zoomed view below
The People Who Next Settled Here:
first came the Spanish, French, and English
image - Wikipedia
image - Wikipedia
image below - GeoCurrents
Early History of Illinois Region
by Historical Review of Chicago & Cook County
Rendering of Chicago 1779 that features
the first non-native to settle - Jean Baptiste De Sable
British territory as of 1775 that included
the Northwest territories in 'sky blue in color'
interactive image - Accessible Archives-Facebook
at one period in time our area belonged to Connecticut
below is a 1771 map from Ebay
established after the Revolutionary War
once British territory as well that include Illinois
image - University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
a zoomed view below
The United States by 1818
Illinois earned statehood that year
the nation would expand westward as shown below
Henry Charles Carey & Isaac Lea Map
The establishment of the counties along the rivers came first due only economical transportation route at the time - rivers
Cook County was not established at this time
let alone a Lake View Township within it
images - Geography of Illinois by H O Lathrop (1940)
The Chicago Region
The colonists cometh
by Historical Review of Chicago & Cook County
image - Chicago in Maps by Robert A Holland
Fort Dearborn - Chicago - 1812
A Fort before Dearborn?
by Historical Review of Chicago & Cook County
map via Paul Petraitis-Facebook
top right along the river was the fort
from Kenneth Swedroe via Original Chicago-Facebook
images - The Digital Research Library of the Illinois
Alfred Sully Depiction of the Fort
and another location
read the text below
via Windy City Historians/Facebook
Land of Forests
image - Chicago: growth of a metropolis
with a zoomed view south of Fullerton Avenue at the top
... a lot of trees & brush
Mouth of Chicago River - from Card Cow
map via Joe Sonderman/Forgotten Chicago Discussion Group
a 1832 view
Chicago History Museum Collection via Paul Petraitis, Forgotten Chicago-Facebook
a 1853 view - Michael Thomas
via Forgotten Chicago-Facebook
1830 map - via Chicago Past
another view more detail 1830
photo - via Patrick McBriarty Windy City Historians-Facebook
This hand drawn map was created
by the Commander of Fort Dearborn.
1818 Matthew Carey's Potawatomi map
image - Early Chicago.com.
The Territory of Illinois became a State of the
Settlers vs Natives
The years 1832 & 1834 mark the end
of Native Americans east of the Mississippi
an article from 1832
Anthony Finley Map David Rumsey Map Collection 1831
Town of Chicago 1832 - Calumet 412
mouth of the Chicago River
image - Ebay
Treaty of Chicago of 1833 was the end of influence and the end of most hunting grounds for Native American tribes along the greater Great Lakes region. The United States drafted this treaty with the several villages of Potawatomi in Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Two years later a charter was granted by
an early illustration - Ebay
Northeastern Illinois was again colonized by settlers from the United States beginning in the 1830's following the survey and sale of Canal Lands within the canal corridor to private interests. This enormous planned development by the federal govenment meant jobs for courageous easterners willing to move out of the 'comfort zones' to terrific terrian. 'In 1833, Congress appropriated funds to improve the harbor and construct piers to fortify the channel. The investment opened the river for larger ships and increased Chicago’s standing as a center for cross-continental trade.' Read this comprehesive article
image - Imgur
Henry S Tanner Map David Rumsey Map Collection 1836
Chicago, if not Lake View Township
"The streets of the village in the fall soon became deluged with mud. It lay in many places half a leg deep, up to the hubs of the carts and wagons, in the middle of the streets, and the only sidewalk we had was a single plank stretched from one building to another. The smaller scholars I used to bring to school and take home on my back, not daring to trust them on the slippery plank. One day I made a misstep and went down into the thick mire with a little one in my arms. With difficulty I regained my foothold, with both overshoes sucked off by this thick, slimy mud, which I never recovered."
Chief Waubonsie of the Pottowatomis
‘In 1835, [Chief] Waubonsie, then more than 70 years old,
traveled to Washington, D. C. to meet with delegations from other tribes. Waubonsie had an audience with President
Andrew Jackson and addressed him as "Brother-Brave." Nothing of any great importance was accomplished
with this visit. In 1837 all the Indians were rounded up and sent to
Chicago. There, they met other bands of
Pottawatomie from Michigan and Indiana, and began a harrowing walk to Missouri
and Kansas that later became known as the
image - WikipediaThe last Native American area was located in the Evanston Township area know as Ouilmette according to Evanston History Center. "The Ouilmettes built a cabin for their family of eight children at Lake Street and Lake Michigan in what is now Wilmette (named for them, though the spelling was changed). Their home was a well-known stopping place for traders and travelers, and their farm continued to supply the growing settlement in Chicago. Archange and Antoine lived on the reservation until about 1838 when they joined fellow Potawatomi that had been removed to Council Bluffs, Iowa. It was there that Archange died in 1840 and Antoine in 1841. In 1844 their heirs petitioned the U.S. Government to sell the reservation’s land. The government purchased the land (640 acres) for $1,000 and then gradually re-sold it to real estate developers."
“Early Chicagoans, like most Americans in the 19th
century, were brutal pragmatists. They valued progress at any cost. In 1835,
city dwellers shed few tears over the scattering of the area’s original
inhabitants, the Potawatomi, despite the Potawatomi’s own lamentations—800
warriors marched across Chicago’s early wooden bridges in a ceremonial leaving
of the lakeshore. Their native fishing and hunting grounds having been over-taken,
they’d accepted a brokered agreement to move beyond the Mississippi River into
what is now Iowa. It was a deal they couldn’t refuse.”
The University of Chicago map illustration above indicated established subdivisions between 1844-1862. It is to be noted that this map was drafted in 1933 (so no Lincoln Park at the time), Sheridan Road proposed extension, and the rail lines were added to help the viewer with geography.
Land values assessment per square mile as of 1873-79 years after the incorporation of Lake View Township and 16 years before the annexation to Chicago.
A 1879 Encyclopedia map (to be zoomed) show streets and communities in Lake View Township such as Pine Grove, Andersonville, Ravenswood, Bowmanville, and a community called Henry Town. Also shown are the cemeteries of Rosehill & Graceland. Also, during this time period community of Rogers Park had earned its' distinction as a township seceding from Evanston Township.
The Then Existing Shores
The shoreline - pre development
postcards - Ebay
and another typical shoreline in 1903
photo - UIC via Explore Chicago Collection
Maps of the Shoreline in 1894
1894 Sanborn Fire Map the shoreline consisted of street-end beaches; a time before Sheridan Road and the northward landfill & expansion of the park
to Sleep, Drink, & Party
along with shed for your horses
one of the first tavern hotels of the old township
image - 'Challenging Chicago' by Katy Crowley
1890's photo via Chicagology
'The grand opening was on a Wednesday evening in December, 1866 and reporters from the major Chicago papers were brought to the gala affair in a huge four-horse sleigh. Hyman declared to all,
“I would like you gentlemen of the press to understand that this affair will be straight to the wink of an eyelash. All the ladies are here on their honor, and Mrs. Hyman will see to it that nothing unseemly takes place.”' - excerpt from a site called Chicagology
The talk was that the establishment use for prostitution.
located on Grace Street & the then existing lakefront
The old Huntley House renamed Lake View House by 1854
The Lake View House owned by Elisha Huntley and co-managed James Rees and then co-owned to be used not only as a resort but a meeting place to discuss real estate, particularly Mr. Huntley's holdings in the old community of Pine Grove beginning in 1853 until 1890-ish. I have a open petition to the 46th Chicago ward office to create a landmark status of the current garden space that will memorialize this hotel of old Lake View. This was accomplished in 2016 with the assistance of the caretaker of community garden, the alderman, and The Ravenswood-Lake View Historical Association.
image - John Falk via Chicagopedia-Facebook
from a book called 'Chicago and It's Makers'
The caption highlights what was once 'Wright's Grove' around the Diversey Parkway area
The Depiction from above
A German Saengerfest (singing festival) was the event.
"Chicago became the festival city for the second time when the twenty-second great Saengerfest of the North American Saengerbund was held here in 1881. For weeks and months ahead, preparations were enthusiastically pushed, and the festival committee, under the guidance of the festival president, Louis Wahl, did everything in its power to insure the success of the event. When the first festival day, June 29, finally arrived, the out-of-town guests were first of all taken by the reception committee to their quarters, where they received an excellent meal for thirty-five cents."
An Article of the Event
At the corner edge of the old Lake View
Jerri Walker via Forgotten Chicago on Facebook
Bowmansville on Devon east of Western Avenue in 1914
Jerri Walker - Forgotten Chicago on Facebook
Chicago River north at Lawrence Street Bridge 1909
Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago
photo & info - Friends of Cuneo-Facebook
Two adults and a child along the Northwest Rail Company rail tracks that once was route through the
old township within the community of Buena Park
Read the text above 1887 ... that year the township of
Lake View was chartered as a City in Illinois
The turn of track that is now West Sheridan Road
and once called Graceland Road (Irving Park Road)
Leland Avenue looking west 1891
Leland Avenue near Dover_Street 1891
Looking west from Seeley Avenue towards Western Avenue 1890's
Sam Brown Real Estate Office
for the Sheridan Drive Subdivision
that was located at Clark and Wilson 1891
Sunnyside Avenue looking west for that street
Wilson and Evanston (Broadway) Avenue prior to the construction of the elevated tracks in 1907 with a
Wilson Avenue looking northwest on Malden Street 1891
Wilson and Magnolia 1891
Wilson Avenue at Malden and Magnolia
Note: these photos are from Sulzer Regional Library and are gathered and stored by the Ravenswood- Lake View Historical Association that is housed in this particular library
the corner of the former township/city
from a section of a book called Chicago: growing metropolis
photo below - Calumet 412
Montrose Avenue looking west toward Ravenswood Avenue in 1905 years before the elevated tracks would be constructed photo
And the Bridges that Connect the Landmasses
Forty miles north of downtown Chicago, the Chicago River
begins its journey in Park City, Illinois, where a small storm-water channel
enters the Greenbelt Forest Preserve and forms the headwaters of the Skokie
River, according to The Friends of the Chicago River. In suburban Niles the river enters
a different phase called the Upper North Branch that continues until Wolf Point
in Chicago. In this segment of my blog I will highlight the bridges that
connected the landmasses of each side the North Branch of the Chicago River
that influenced development near old Lake View. Those bridges are on the streets of Montrose,
Irving Park Road, Addison, Belmont, and (Fullerton Avenue-once the border between
Chicago & Township/City of Lake View).
2020 Google map highlights the bridges with an X
After a severe storm in 1885 caused the river to empty
large amounts of sewage-polluted water into Lake Michigan, plans were begun to
reverse its flow through the construction of a canal, which was completed in
1900. [The only mayor of the City of Lake View William Boldenweck was the Drainage
Broad president during this period of time.] The river now flows inland—through
the south branch and into the Illinois Waterway (Chicago Sanitary and Ship
Canal and the Des Plaines and Illinois rivers) to connect with the Mississippi
River. The reversal of the river’s flow is considered one of the greatest feats
of modern engineering. The south branch of the river was straightened between
1928 and 1930, which moved the river 0.25 mile (0.4 km) west, according to the Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
I begin with ...
Before the first bridge at Fullerton Avenue could be
built, the street had to be extended from Ashland Avenue to the river. The municipalities of Chicago and the
[Township of] Lake View both contributed to construction costs 3/4 and 1/4
respectively. [Both Chicago & Lake View bordered on Fullerton Avenue.] The
bridge opened in 1874. It was a fixed
iron bridge. It was 225 feet long and 20
feet wide. Construction costs were $5,000. The bridge was removed in 1877. The
second bridge at Fullerton Avenue was a wood and iron hand operated swing
structure. According to Chicago
Architecture Center website Swing Bridges were set up like a spinner in a board
game, which resulted in ships crashing into them, and vehicle collisions on
them were common. It was funded with contributions from [City of]Chicago (2/3)
and [Township of]Lake View (1/3).
Construction costs were $7,444. The original bridge was removed in 1894-5 [five years after the annexation of the
City of Lake View to Chicago in 1889.]
[As of 2018 this bridge was on its 4th
In 1875 when the first Belmont Avenue Bridge was built. On
both sides of the North Branch of the Chicago River at Belmont were the [townships
of] Lake View on the east and Jefferson on the west. The Belmont Avenue Bridge
was an iron fixed bridge. It was 77 feet
long and 17 feet wide. It was designed and constructed by the King Bridge
Company. Total constructed costs were $3290. Three governmental entities shared
in the costs; Jefferson ($1,491), Lake View ($1,097), and Cook County ( $694).
This bridge was a 77-foot-long and 19 feet wide bridge. In 1889, the city of Chicago annexed [the
City of]Lake View and [the Township of]Jefferson and took over ownership of the
bridge. The bridge was removed in 1893. [As of 2018 this bridge is on its 4th design.]
via Connecting the Windy City
The first bridge opened September 1896 [when Lake
View was a still a relatively new ‘district’ of Chicago and seven
years after the annexation of the City of Lake View in 1889.] It was 184 feet
long and 35 feet wide. It was a steel-hand operated swing bridge.
1902 photo - Ravenswood-Lake View Community Collection
map - Ebay
Designer is apparently unknown. The Superstructure Contractor was Lassing
Bridge and Iron Company [originally a Township/City of Lake View business.] The Substructure Contractor was Lydon and Drews Company. The cost was $31,345. [As of
2018 this bridge was on its 2nd design.]
The Other Bridges Mentioned
The Initial Irving Park Road Bridge
photo - Ravenswood-Lake View Community Collection
Working Along the River
a 1887 view from Fullerton to Belmont
1887 map - Historical Informational Gatherers
with a zoomed view from Fullerton to Wellington
An industrial area developed along the north branch of the Chicago River from Fullerton to Diversey what today would be called a Industrial Park. Manufacturing was the norm in this country particularly in the Chicago area. Property values was more expensive in the City of Chicago so a few manufacturers located their businesses along the river in the Township/City of Lake View. Locating a business near a river or railroad tracks were the main means of transport for their customers in the region until better roads and trucks entered the scene. The notalbe manufacturers on this river area were the following: William Deering & Company - later to be called International Harvester/Deering Works, Northwestern Terra Cotta Company, Illinois Malleable Iron Works.
A 1894 map below of the manufacturers
"The question of the houseboats’ legality was about as
murky as the river water. When the squatters’ camp started growing during the
‘20's, the city’s Sanitary District tried to evict the occupants, citing water
pollution and navigation concerns. When a judge issued an injunction preventing
the houseboats from being ousted in 1930, the colony grew. The Sanitary
District of Chicago had by then completed its channelization project along the
north branch which connected to the North Shore Channel."
The Entertainment Along the River
a 1905 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map
It opened on July 2, 1904 as the German Sharpshooter
Park, at the intersection of Belmont and Western Avenues. Targets [for shooting] were set up
on an island in the north branch of the Chicago River, when deer roamed its' woods. But wives and children complained they had nothing to do while the men
hunted; so two years later, the owners commissioned a carousel consisting of five-row wooden carousel with 70 [wooden] horses handcrafted by Swiss and Italian
woodcarvers from the Philadelphia Toboggan Coaster Company according to WTTW.
a vintage postcard of the park - Ebay
When Chicagoans were Talking Secession
by Neil Gale
Chicago history based on conditions that existed
1910 and 1925
There was a time when downstate Illinois controlled the
state which was not to Chicago’s advantage. Throughout Illinois history parts
of Illinois have threatened or planned to secede from the state of Illinois,
mainly because of the Chicago area being too dominant. However according to Chicago’s
history, society the city once proposed to secede from Illinois to form the
"State of Chicago." On June 27, 1925, Chicagoans were talking
secession. Maybe Chicago should break off from Illinois and form a new state.
The Illinois Constitution was being violated. Every ten
years, following the federal census, the legislative districts were supposed to
be redrawn. That hadn’t been done since 1901. Downstaters controlled the state
legislature. Letting Chicago have more seats would take away their power. So
the legislature had simply refused to redistrict after the 1910 census. They
had again refused after the 1920 census. Chicago’s population had grown from
2,.2 million to 2.7 million during that time.
According to Alderman John Toman, the city deserved five
more state senators and fifteen more state representatives. So, Toman offered a
resolution to the city council—that the city’s lawyer should investigate how
Chicago might secede from Illinois. The resolution passed unanimously.
Obviously, there were going to be problems. The U.S.
Constitution specifically stated that no new state could be carved from part of
an existing state unless the existing state approves it. Would downstate be
willing to let Chicago go, and lose all that tax revenue? Probably not. But
perhaps sometime in the future. Besides, there were ways of getting around the
Constitution. Kentucky was a part of Virginia in 1792, Maine was a part of
Massachusetts in 1820, and West Virginia was a part of Virginia in 1863 during
the Civil War.
The proposed State of Chicago would take in all of Cook
County. Suburbia was tiny in 1925. Out of 3 million people in the county, about
2.7 lived within the Chicago city limits. The secessionists said they’d
consider including DuPage and Lake counties, too.
Most Chicagoans seemed to like the idea of being a
separate state. Along with being freed from the downstate dictators, Chicago
would enjoy more clout on the national stage. The new state would rank 11th out
of 49 in population.
Even if the plan didn’t become a reality, the threat was
worth making. “Chicago is having trouble getting a square deal from the state,”
a South Side electrician said. “I believe the only way to get back at them is
to rebel. That would give them something to think about.”
During the 1960s, the U.S. Supreme Court’s various “one
man, one vote” rulings gave the city its fair share of legislature seats so
Chicago no longer saw the need to become its own state and the plan to leave
Illinois became part of Chicago’s forgotten history.
Please continue to my next post called
These posts are exclusively used for educational purposes. I do not wish to gain monetary profit from this blog nor should anyone else without permission for the original source - thanks!