June 15, 2015

The Cultural Influencer's of Lake View

The Main Ethnic Groups
that had dominance or considerable influence 
to the social fabric of Lake View in their time in history
A Depiction of Germans embarcking for sail to America
image - Harper's Weekly 1874
Each European group brought with them their own culture, faith, and vitality to the area of Lake View that included Lutheran, Catholic and Jewish sensibilities of hard work and devotion to family and community. The Native American peoples had their sense of culture that included hard work and family that sharply conflicted with the Europeans. The new arrivals did not understand or at times care in the belief that their culture was the only one sanctioned by faith and morality. 
The last of many tribes of the Area
from link above
Apparently, he was one of the greatest
 Pottawatomie chiefs of the 19th century
Other Pottawatomie Chiefs
images - New York Public Library 

'The Potawatomi were semi-sedentary, living in agricultural villages in summer and separating into smaller family groups in autumn as they moved to their winter hunting grounds. Men hunted and fished; women planted and harvested crops and collected wild plant foods. Village dwellings were large bark-covered houses or dome-shaped wickiups or wigwams; these were also used at winter sites. The Potawatomi were divided into several politically independent territorial bands that were linked by kinship and language. Clans whose members traced their descent from a common ancestor through the male line were distributed among the various bands, and clan intermarriage served to unify each band. Crowded by settlers, the Potawatomi ceded their lands and moved west of the Mississippi River at the beginning of the 19th century. Many tribal members who resided in Indiana refused to leave until they were driven out by the U.S. military, and some of them escaped into Canada. In 1846 most Potawatomi were again displaced, this time to a Kansas reservation where they became known as the Prairie band. Over the course of their westerly movements, the tribe borrowed cultural features from the Plains Indians, notably communal bison hunts. In the late 1860's many of the Kansas band moved to Indian Territory ( Oklahoma), where they were known as the Citizen Potawatomi.' - Britiannica

image above - Sheffield Neighborhood Association
images - University of Illinois-Chicago

Ancient Chicago Indian Mounds

re-re-discovering Chicago past
"There aren't many accounts of the prehistoric connection to Chicago—especially for the city's Bowmanville neighborhood but for decades neighbors have known of the area's prehistoric legacy. "I was really fascinated to learn that our entire neighborhood had been a part of a native habitation," said 20-year Bowmanville resident Barry Kafka. "I’m frustrated that we don’t know more about it," Kafka said. Oral history in the neighborhood suggested that since the early 1900's, people had been digging up ancient artifacts in their back yards. But, unfortunately, history had never been properly recorded to help reconstruct the lives of humans who lived thousands of years ago in what is now modern Chicago."
For more than 10 years she's been capturing stories through photography that will be included in the book "Dancing for Our Tribe: Potawatomi Tradition in the New Millennium."
The greatest influx of Luxembourgers into the United States was during the mid and late nineteenth century during a time of political and territorial drama by the major powers of Europe, particularly Belgium and newly united nation of Germany. Between 1841 and 1891, an estimated 45,000 Luxembourgers emigrated to the United States. In the 1830's and 1840's the Luxembourgers arrived in such areas as Maryland, New York and Louisiana. The greatest attraction was in the Midwest, where most of them eventually settled due to availability of fertile and inexpensive farmland. During this time many came on board ships of the Red Star Line, which sailed from Antwerp, Belgium.

The first significant wave of immigration took place between 1830 and the mid-1840s. These immigrants settled in western New York state, in towns such as Sheldon, in Wyoming County, and New Oregon, in Erie County. Significant numbers of settlers also settled in Ohio in such places as Alvada, in Seneca County and New Riegel and Kirby, in Wyandot County. The second important wave between 1846 and 1860 led to a great expansion in the population of Luxembourger Americans. Moving westward, they settled in Illinois. A large number settled in Chicago while smaller, yet significant, numbers settled in Rogers Park, Rosehill, Evanston, Aurora, and what is now Skokie. Further settlements were in eastern Wisconsin's Ozaukee County. - article by Drew Walker - link above

After 1870 Chicago's Luxembourgers were able to construct a rich ethnic life, shaped by growing nationalism in the homeland following independence in 1867, by their own increasing prosperity, and by their desire to distinguish themselves from a local German community often associated with labor radicalism.
Conflict in the Old World in 1874
reason for leaving
Membership Pins
photo - Ebay
1783 - As many as 5,000 of the Hessian soldiers hired by Britain to fight in the Revolutionary War remained in America after the end of hostilities.
1821 - The Germanic custom of having a specially decorated tree at Christmas time was introduced to America by Pennsylvania Dutch in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Later in the century, the Pennsylvania Dutch version of St. Nicholas, Sinterklaas, evolved into America's Santa Claus, popularized by a German immigrant and influential political cartoonist, Thomas Nast. The Easter bunny and Easter eggs were also brought to this country by German immigrants.
1848-49 - The failure of the revolutions of 1848 to establish democracy caused thousands to leave Germany to settle in America; the most famous of these refugees was Carl Schurz. He later served as a Union general in the Civil War, a United States senator from Missouri, and secretary of the interior under President Rutherford B. Hayes.
1850's - Nearly one million Germans immigrated to America in this decade, one of the peak periods of German immigration; in 1854 alone, 215,000 Germans arrived in this country.
1872 - The century-old privileges granted to German farmers settled in Russia were revoked by the Tsarist government, causing thousands of the farmers to emigrate. By 1920, there were well over 100,000 of these so-called Volga and Black Sea Germans in the United States, with the greatest numbers in the Dakotas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Black Sea Germans soon became known for their skill as wheat farmers. In 1990 an estimated one million descendants of these Russian Germans lived in America.
1880's - In this decade, the decade of heaviest German immigration, nearly 1.5 million Germans left their country to settle in the United States; about 250,000, the greatest number ever, arrived in 1882.
1890 - An estimated 2.8 million German-born immigrants lived in the United States. A majority of the German-born living in the United States were located in the "German triangle," whose three points were Cincinnati, Milwaukee, and St. Louis.
1930 social science map from the University of Chicago Collection that was edited for this blog. The darker stripped areas indicate a greater density of their population
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries German owned and operated beer-gardens dotted the map of northside and Lake View. Read more about with this link from my blog. The most popular was Bismarck Gardens once located on the southwest corner of Broadway, Grace & Halsted streets.
Another 'hot spot' later in the century was the following ...
(both postcards are part of my private collection)
 The Germans in Chicago by 1902

'In 1848, only 40 Swedes lived in Chicago, and that population grew slowly. Many of these earliest settlers came to work on the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Although the Swedish settlement remained small for the next two decades, reaching 816 people in 1860 and 6,154 in 1870, it represented the largest single cluster of Swedes in the United States. During the 1870s, the Swedish population in the city doubled, outnumbered only by the German, Irish, and British immigrant groups. These early Swedish settlers established three distinct ethnic enclaves. The largest emerged north of the Chicago River on the Near North Side and became known as Swede Town.' The Swedes settled in an area called SwedeTown to later establish enclaves at Belmont/Clark and Clark/Foster in Andersonville.

An Historical Excerpt 
from 'East Lake View' by Matthew Nickerson
According to this 1930 social science map from the University of Chicago Collection (zoomed) it looks like the concentration was in central areas of Lake View. The dark shaded areas indicate greatest density of population.

Ground Zero for the Community in Lake View
The Fralsningsarmens - Lake View Corps
was located near the IOV lodge
photo - Chuckman Collection 1912 
 located at Sheffield & School
a 2019 Google view
and once the home of ...
'From the center of Chicago, and proceeding north over the Chicago River, we can today still find Clark Street – referred to by Swedish-Americans in the early years as “Snusgatan”, or “Snuff Street”, named after the popular habit of chewing snuff. Continuing along Clark Street and just south of Oak Street at Washington Square Park we can imagine seeing small groups of these young Swedish men gathering together after long hours of work in the local industries, conversing with one another in their mother tongue, perhaps amusing themselves with games and sporting competitions.
These men, full of life and looking forward to a bright future for themselves and their families, soon became aware, however, of their insecurity should death, a debilitating sickness or any other misfortune happen to them. They thereupon resolved to establish a fraternal organization to help one another, both financially and communally. Such a decision was made, therefore, by a group of eleven Swedish immigrants during an informal gathering on June 2, 1890 in a bachelor room located at 86 Sedgwick Street.'
 The Sheffield Location
'On October 17, 1892 the Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Vikings granted a Charter for the establishment of a second subordinate Lodge. The name chosen was Brage #2. Its first meeting place was located at Locust and Townsend Streets, north of Chicago Avenue. By 1893 it was already time for larger quarters and Brage #2 moved to Phoenix Hall on Division and Sedgwick Streets. By 1910 they had sufficient membership & funds to move into their own building, the North Side Viking Temple, at Sheffield Avenue and School Street. By 1919, almost 30 years after the first Lodge [near the loop area] was formed, there were 59 lodges in six states with a combined membership of 9204. By 1929, almost forty years after Vikingarne #1, there were already 95 lodges located in 19 states with a total membership near 15,000.
By 1895, therefore, the I.O.V. had become incorporated as a certified insurance company. The Viking Order has continued up to the present time to operate under this Charter, issuing life insurance certificates to its members in amounts up to $10,000 in Illinois and other states in which it is licensed to operate.
- segment of their history.'
image - Warner Printing Company

text from the Peasant Maids, City Women: 

From the European Countryside to Urban America

postcard - Ebay
and later in the 20th century ...
1914- 1984
this stationary is part of my private collection
a dance sponsored in 1931
image - Warner Printing Company
The Restauruants
Dominance Declines for both the Swedes and Germans
image - 'Lake View' by Matthew Nickerson
Swede to Korea-Town
According to the publication called 'The Lake View Saga' the Swedish community in Lake View changed hands and was known as Korea-Town by the 1970's - excerpt for their 1984 publication 

The Japanese-American Experience
Nisei & Issei
Nisei means the son or daughter of Japanese immigrants who are born and educated in America and especially 
in the United States while Issei means 
a new Japanese immigrants to the Americas.
Consul S. Yamasaki and his wife 
standing on a Chicago railroad platform 1911 
photo - Chicago History Museum
The History in Chicago in 1904 
along with the attitude at the time
While there has been a presence of Japanese residents in Chicago since late and early 20th century the greatest influx of residents occurred after the United State Supreme ruled in 1943 that the internment of resident Japanese, particularly US born, was illegal that subsequently forced Issei and Nisei to move to west of the Mississippi River. The Nisei & Issei populations would prove resilient after their World War II experiences and would thrive in a new land called Chicago. Many found emotional and financial stability in Chicago - many in Lake View and Uptown communities. A migration to the north-side for the Nikkei community ensued into Lake View, in the vicinity of Wrigley Field, establishing businesses and their own cultural institutions
There were two notable symbols of their presence in Lake View - their churches such as the Christ Church of Chicago and the Lakeside Church of Chicago as well as numerous business along Clark Street in Wrigley Field. 
The community's status 1950
The most notable person of Lake View was 'Tokyo Rose'. Read more about her and her parents' store on Belmont Avenue north of Clark Street with this Facebook link from my LakeView Historical page. 
A Senior Home on Sheffield & School 1965
(click on article to view)
page 2
map - Discover Nikkei
One of the few retail establishments that has survived is the 
Nisei Lounge on Sheffield Avenue near Newport
'Paul Yamauchi (bottom left) remembers growing up in the Lake View neighborhood, near North Racine Avenue and West Eddy Street. He would later work at The Hamburger King, his dad’s neighborhood restaurant.' Yamauchi was a sansei, or third-generation Japanese-American. As a kid, he says, he worked next door at his dad’s restaurant, Hamburger King, which had a side door that connected to the Nisei Lounge. “One of my favorite activities was helping out my dad there,” “My pay was a bowl of chili and fries.
Students at Lake View High School
photo via Susan Reibman Groff 1968 LVHS book
pages - 'East Lake View' by Matthew Nickerson
This community as of 2017 still maintains its presence through it culture center
located at 1016 W Belmont Avenue
photo - their website
 both photo - Michael B. via Yelp
Saira C via Yelp
 both photos - William S via Yelp 2017
Although a handful of Puerto Rican men and women moved to Chicago from New York in the 1930's, the first significant wave of Puerto Rican Commonwealth citizens' migration to Chicago began in the late 1940's. They arrived on the mainland seeking the same opportunities as their Euro counterparts, access to better life. By the 1960's most of the Chicago Puerto Ricans were concentrated in Lincoln Park, West Town, and Humboldt Park and shared these neighborhoods with Mexican and Polish immigrants as well as African Americans. By the mid-1960's Puerto Rican population and other low-income residents of Lincoln Park were displaced by urban renewal programs and the redevelopment of Lincoln Park
Puerto Rican residents relocated to West Town, New Town - that is currently called Lake View East and Humboldt Park, where their concentration facilitated the creation of Chicago's first Puerto Rican barrio/neighborhood, along Division Street as residents frequently refer to it as 'la Division'. 
The Chicago Tribune articles below tell a tale of presence and struggle for these citizens in Chicago particularly 
in the Lake View - Uptown areas
a 1964 article about the formation 
of a minority committee
Pastor on Roscoe Street gets involved in 1966
(click on article to enlarge)
Funding for Spanish Speakers 1969

Neighborhood Association 
Assistance in 1969

  Affordable Housing 
was a critical issue in that era of urban renewal
 for this population in 1973
Latinos struggle continue to fit in 1974
(click to enlarge article)
In 1975 'Cha Cha' Jose Jimenez ran for alderman of the 46th ward, 
who resided on somewhere on Grace Street. 
Jose 'Cha Cha' Jimenez was the head of the Young Lords 
'Jose Cha Cha Jimenez’s 1975 aldermanic campaign and his work toward the successful election of the first African American mayor of Chicago. Several progressive politicians who cut their political teeth on Jimenez’s city council campaign used the skills they acquired in the mid-1970s to break through the political glass ceiling that for decades kept Latinos from actualizing their potential. This article provides a lens through which to see how Jimenez and the Young Lords laid the groundwork for an anti-Daley machine that was a continuation of the original Rainbow Coalition.'
 Lake View Gentrification Begins 1976
New Town=the Lake View East area

Their Neighborhood Struggle in 1977
(click to enlarge article)
According to insert within this above article it appears like the concentration was in Lake View, West Town and New West Town.
Budget Cuts threaten Political Representation
 in Lake View 1983
(click to enlarge article)

page 2
(click to enlarge article)
The "last Puerto Rican" of Lake View 1987 

The Poles

When Lake View was a township/city there was a small section of that was settled along the Chicago River by Poles for the purpose of employment in its manufacturing area 
according to this 1887 article about another topic

Post Note
This map below apparently shows the following ethnic groups of 1950 Lake View - ethnic Germans to the west, Japanese 
and Swedes to the eastIn central Lake View 
were the Puerto Ricans & Native Americans
map below - Scott David 
via Forgotten Chicago Discusssion Group

A Post Commentary
It is in my opinion that without strong and vibrant organizations a social class or ethnic group had a more difficult time to 'take hold' in our neighborhood. The Germans and Swedes made a lasting impact  because of their own associations and social clubs. The most notable organization in Lake View were the German speakers who established & sponsored Turnverein or Social Turners Clubs. 
Read about the current neighborhood associations in Lake View in my post called Civic Associations.

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Important Note:
These posts are exclusively used for educational purposes. I do not wish to gain monetary profit from this blog nor should anyone else without permission for the original source - thanks!

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