The Main Ethnic Groups
that had dominance or considerable influence
to the social fabric of Lake View in their time in history
A depiction of Germans embarcking to America
illustration - Harper's Weekly 1874
Each European group brought with them their own culture, faith, and vitality to the area of Lake View that included Lutheran, Catholic and Jewish sensibilities of hard work and devotion to family and community. The Native American peoples had their sense of culture that included hard work and family that sharply conflicted with the Europeans.
The last of many tribes of the area
Those who came before where the Miami for a brief while and before them the Illiniwek. I will only devote this segment to the last.
images - University of Illinois-Chicago
Apparently, he was one of the greatest
Pottawatomie chiefs of all time
Other Pottawatomie Chiefs
illustrations - New York Public Library
'The Potawatomi were semi-sedentary, living in
agricultural villages in summer and separating into smaller family groups in
autumn as they moved to their winter hunting grounds. Men hunted and fished;
women planted and harvested crops and collected wild plant foods. Village
dwellings were large bark-covered houses or dome-shaped wickiups or wigwams;
these were also used at winter sites. The Potawatomi were divided into several
politically independent territorial bands that were linked by kinship and
language. Clans whose members traced their descent from a common ancestor
through the male line were distributed among the various bands, and clan
intermarriage served to unify each band. Crowded by settlers, the Potawatomi ceded their lands and
moved west of the Mississippi River at the beginning of the 19th century. Many
tribal members who resided in Indiana refused to leave until they were driven
out by the U.S. military, and some of them escaped into Canada. In 1846 most
Potawatomi were again displaced, this time to a Kansas reservation where they
became known as the Prairie band. Over the course of their westerly movements,
the tribe borrowed cultural features from the Plains Indians, notably communal
bison hunts.' Read more about them with the following link - Britiannica
re-re-discovering Chicago past
"There aren't many accounts of the prehistoric connection to Chicago—especially for the city's Bowmanville neighborhood but for decades neighbors have known of the area's prehistoric legacy. "I was really fascinated to learn that our entire neighborhood had been a part of a native habitation," said 20-year Bowmanville resident Barry Kafka. "I’m frustrated that we don’t know more about it," Kafka said. Oral history in the neighborhood suggested that since the early 1900's, people had been digging up ancient artifacts in their back yards. But, unfortunately, history had never been properly recorded to help reconstruct the lives of humans who lived thousands of years ago in what is now modern Chicago."
text below - Sheffield Neighborhood Association
Forced removals and multiple treaty-era relocations
resulted in cultural chaos and an enduring threat to their connections to the
ancestors. Despite these hardships, they have managed to maintain (or restore)
their rich heritage.
from the smallest of nations of Europe
The second important wave between 1846 and 1860 led to a
great expansion in the population of Luxembourger Americans. Moving westward,
they settled in Illinois. A large number settled in Chicago while smaller, yet
significant, numbers settled in Rogers Park, Rosehill, Evanston, Aurora, and
what is now Skokie. Like many long-settled groups in the United States, very
few Luxembourger Americans can speak the language of their ancestors. Despite
this, however, a considerable number still practice traditions handed down
through the generations. Even though they have been interacting for over a
century with German Americans, many of these people continue to identify
themselves as being Luxembourger.
Look for LUX.
Current Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in orange
1783 - As many as 5,000 of the Hessian soldiers were hired by the British Empire to fight in the Revolutionary War remained in America after the end of hostilities - the first wave of imigrants
1821 - The Germanic custom of having a specially decorated tree at Christmas time was introduced to America by Pennsylvania Dutch in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Later in the century, the Pennsylvania Dutch version of St. Nicholas, Sinterklaas, evolved into America's Santa Claus, popularized by a German immigrant and influential political cartoonist, Thomas Nast. The Easter bunny and Easter eggs were also brought to this country by German immigrants.
1848-49 - The failure of the European revolutions of 1848 caused thousands to leave Germany to settle in America; the most famous of these refugees was Carl Schurz. He later served as a Union general in the Civil War, a United States senator from Missouri, and secretary of the interior under U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes.
1850's - Nearly one million Germans immigrated to America in this decade, one of the peak periods of German immigration; in 1854 alone, 215,000 Germans arrived in this country.
1872 - The century-old privileges granted to German
farmers to settled in Imperial Russia were revoked by the Tsarist government, causing
thousands of the farmers to emigrate.
By 1920, there were well over 100,000 of
these so-called Volga and Black Sea Germans in the United States, with the
greatest numbers in the Dakotas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Black Sea Germans soon
became known for their skill as wheat farmers. In 1990 an estimated one million
descendants of these Russian Germans lived in America.
1880's - In this decade, the decade of heaviest German
immigration, nearly 1.5 million Germans left their country to settle in the
United States; about 250,000, the greatest number ever, arrived in 1882.
1890 - An estimated 2.8 million German-born immigrants
lived in the United States. A majority of the German-born living in the United
States were located in the "German triangle," whose three points were
Cincinnati, Milwaukee, and St. Louis.
1930 social science map from the University of Chicago Collection that was edited for this blog. The darker stripped areas indicate the greater density of their population
German-Americans Make their Mark
in Lake View During the late 19th and early 20th centuries German owned and operated beer-gardens that dotted the map of northside and Lake View. The most popular was Bismarck Gardens once located on the southwest corner of Broadway, Grace & Halsted & Bradley streets.
Another 'hot spot' later in the century was the following
(both postcards are part of my private collection)
image - 'Lake View' by Matthew Nickerson
Swede to Korea-Town
According to the publication called 'The Lake View Saga' the Swedish community in Lake View changed hands and was known as Korea-Town by the 1970's - excerpt for their 1984 publication
Nisei & Issei
Nisei means the son or daughter of Japanese immigrants who
are born and educated in America and especially
in the United States while
a new Japanese born immigrants to the Americas.
Consul S. Yamasaki and his wife
standing on a Chicago railroad platform 1911
photo - Chicago History Museum
While there has been a presence of Japanese residents in Chicago since early 20th century the greatest influx of residents to Chicago occurred after the United State Supreme ruled in 1943 that the
internment of resident Japanese, particularly US born, was illegal that subsequently forced Issei and Nisei to move to west of the Mississippi River. The Nisei & Issei populations would prove resilient after their World War II experiences and would thrive in a new land called Chicago. Many found emotional and financial stability in Chicago - many in Lake View and Uptown communities. A migration to the north-side for the Nikkei community ensued into Lake View, in the vicinity of Wrigley Field, establishing businesses and their own cultural institutions.
From the Camps to Chicago
The most notable person of Lake View was 'Tokyo Rose'. Read more about her and her parents' store on Belmont Avenue north of Clark Street with this Facebook link from my LakeView Historical page.
map - Discover Nikkei
One of the few retail establishments that has survived is the
at Lake View High School
photo via Susan Reibman Groff 1968 LVHS book
pages - 'East Lake View' by Matthew Nickerson
This community as of 2023 still maintains its presence
through it culture center
located at 1016 W Belmont Avenue
photo - their website
both photo - Michael B. via Yelp
Saira C via Yelp
both photos - William S via Yelp 2017
and the presence continues ...
at the former Southport Lanes in 2022 photo & text - Southport Corridor News & Events
The first large wave of migration to Chicago came in the
late 1940s, when many settled in the La Clark neighborhood around Dearborn, La
Salle and Clark Streets just north of downtown Chicago. Starting in 1946, many
people were recruited by Castle Barton Associates and other companies as
low-wage, non-union foundry workers and domestic workers in hotels and private
homes. As soon as they were established in Chicago, many were joined by their
spouses and families. The Puerto Rican neighborhoods of Wicker Park and Lincoln
were one large neighborhood that became divided when the Kennedy Expressway was
built in the late 1950s.
By the 1960s, Chicago's Puerto Rican community was
displaced by urban redevelopment; they moved north and west to Old Town,
Lincoln Park, Lake View, and Wicker Park, later centering in West Town and
Humboldt Park on the city's West Side. They first moved into nearby LincolnPark just over the Chicago River. Puerto Rican settlement also occurred in
Lawndale, also on the city's West Side.
City hall-sponsored gentrification in Lincoln Park began
in the early 1960s and was protested by a Lincoln Park Poor People's Coalition
led by the Young Lords under the leadership of Jose Cha Cha Jimenez. The Puerto
Rican community then moved north and west.
Lake View Responds:
Funding for Spanish Speakers 1969
Assistance in 1969
An Affordable Housing by 1973
Latinos struggle continue
to fit in 1974
Self-Help Though Activtism
and Political Involvement
In 1975 'Cha Cha' Jose Jimenez ran for alderman of the 46th ward.
The northern section of Lake View is still in the 46th ward.
Jose 'Cha Cha' Jimenez was the head of the Young Lords
'Jose Cha Cha Jimenez’s 1975 aldermanic campaign and his
work toward the successful election of the first African
American mayor of Chicago. Several progressive politicians who cut their political teeth on
Jimenez’s city council campaign used the skills they acquired in the mid-1970s to break
through the political glass ceiling that for decades kept Latinos from actualizing their
potential. This article provides a lens through which to see how Jimenez and the Young Lords laid
the groundwork for an anti-Daley machine that was a continuation of the
original Rainbow Coalition.'
Lake View Gentrification Begins about 1976
New Town was the Lake View East area for a time
Concentration in Chicago
Budget Cuts threaten Political Representation
in Lake View by 1983
text - Historic City: The Settlement of Chicago There is one place in Chicago that is considered by many
Filipino Americans as their “home away from home”. This place is called Rizal
Center which is named after the Philippine national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal is located at 1332 W. Irving Park Road.
José Rizal (1861-1896) is one of the most revered figures
in Philippine history. He was a multifaceted intellectual and a political
activist, best known for his political writings that inspired the Philippine
revolution and ultimately led to his execution by the Spanish colonizers.
The Rizal Community Center is more than a building. It's a revitalized way of thinking about who we are and how we engage with our community, our neighborhood, and our city. Our presence in the global diaspora. It is a welcoming, dynamic place for people of all backgrounds to come together, to foster bridging, appreciation, and understanding of the Filipino and Filipino American experiences in Chicago and our place in American society, as well as intersections with diverse cultures. - from their website
The Polish American
When Lake View was a township/city there was a small section of that was settled along the Chicago River by Poles for the purpose of employment in its manufacturing area
according to this 1887 article about another topic
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