June 15, 2015

The Influencer's of the Land

The Main Ethnic Groups
that Influenced the Culture of the Area
Depiction of Germans embarcking for sail 
image - Harper's Weekly 1874
Each European group brought with them their own culture, faith, and vitality to the area of Lake View that included Lutheran, Catholic and/or Jewish sensibilities of hard work and devotion to family and community. I would like to first note that the Native Indian populations were forcible removed from urban centers by the mid-19th century. With the native tribes gone the non-native Americans could move in greater numbers. A sizable Native American population (not as tribes but as individuals) began moving back to some urban areas such as the north-side of Chicago, in particularly the neighborhood of Uptown by the mid-20th century.
The last Native Americans of the Area
Apparently, he was one of the greatest
 Pottawatomie chiefs of the early 19th century
Other Pottawatomie Chiefs
images of chiefs - New York Public Library 
The Potawatomi people were regarded as the sacred keeper of the fire. There method of a camp fire would have a lot of fires having one big fire that would shelter over it so that the fire would never go fail under its own accord. And sometime they would take off the covering of the wigwam and leave just the frame. The fire was built on a mat so it was mobile. Their job assigned by the Great Spirit was to keep the fire burning and if it ever went out a curse would fall on all. According the Lake View's Sheffield Neighborhood Association a village was located in the area of Fullerton, Lincoln, and Clark Street noted for its high elevation. Clark Street was noted for its high ridge that would overlook the marshland toward the  lakefront. It was the path most used my Native Americans.
image - Sheffield Neighborhood Association
images - University of Illinois-Chicago
Read more by using the link above
In 1970 another village was created called 'American Indian Village' near Wrigley Field. It lead to almost two year occupation of a Nike missile military (Cold War era) sight between Belmont Harbor and Montrose Harbor. 
View the video (begin at 7 minutes 30 seconds) on the movement that lead to the occupation of that military sight.
This Chicago Tribune article tells the reader of the return of Native Americans return to Chicago 
(click to enlarge article)

Ancient Chicago Indian Mounds

re-re-discovering Chicago past
"There aren't many accounts of the prehistoric connection to Chicago—especially for the city's Bowmanville neighborhood but for decades neighbors have known of the area's prehistoric legacy. "I was really fascinated to learn that our entire neighborhood had been a part of a native habitation," said 20-year Bowmanville resident Barry Kafka. "I’m frustrated that we don’t know more about it," Kafka said. Oral history in the neighborhood suggested that since the early 1900's, people had been digging up ancient artifacts in their back yards. But, unfortunately, history had never been properly recorded to help reconstruct the lives of humans who lived thousands of years ago in what is now modern Chicago."
 The greatest influx of Luxembourgers into the United States was during the mid and late nineteenth century during a time of political and territorial drama by the major powers of Europe, particularly Belgium and newly united nation of Germany. Between 1841 and 1891, an estimated 45,000 Luxembourgers emigrated to the United States. In the 1830's and 1840's the Luxembourgers arrived in such areas as Maryland, New York and Louisiana. The greatest attraction was in the Midwest, where most of them eventually settled due to availability of fertile and inexpensive farmland. During this time many came on board ships of the Red Star Line, which sailed from Antwerp, Belgium.
The most significant emigration was between 1846 and 1860 that led to a great expansion in the population of Luxembourgers in America. During this time period they settled in Illinois. A large number settled in Chicago while smaller, yet significant, numbers settled in Rogers Park area, Town of Chittenden (Rosehill Cemetery) in Lake View Township, Evanston Township, Aurora area, and what is now the suburb of Skokie. After 1870 Chicago's Luxembourgers were able to construct a rich ethnic life, shaped by growing nationalism in the homeland following independence in 1867, by their own increasing prosperity, and by their desire to distinguish themselves from a local German community often associated with labor radicalism per this article.
Conflict in the Old World 1874
Membership Pins
photo - Ebay
Read more about their migration to this area with this link.
 Chicagoland's initial period of rapid growth in the mid-nineteenth century coincided with the acceleration of
 German language speaking emigration with a sizable German Jewish influx to the United States particularly New York and Chicago. The Germans had been migrating across the Atlantic for a century, and during the peak period of 
mass emigration [P.64] (1820–1920) - 5.9 million reached the United States. An estimate of 300k from 1870 to the late 1890's migrated to Chicago. In Chicago, at time of the Civil War (1861-1865), 40.5 % of all foreign-born residents were of German heritage primarily due to the aftermath of 1848 revolutions in Central Europe. By 1890 an estimated 2.8 million German speaking immigrants lived in the United States. A majority of the German speaking living in the United States were located in the 'German triangle', whose three points were Cincinnati, Milwaukee, and St. Louis. After the Chicago Fire of 1871 many German American residents moved north into community of Lincoln Park and some further north into Lake View Township where land was cheaper and areas more sparsely populated. 
- Landmark Recommendation Report 2011
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries German owned and operated beer-gardens dotting the map of Lake View. Read more about this with this link from my blog. The most popular was Bismarck Gardens once located on the southwest corner of Grace & Halsted Streets.
According to this 1930 social science map from the University of Chicago Collection (zoomed) it looks like the concentration was in west and southwest. The darker stripped areas indicate density of population. 
 The Germans in Chicago 1888 
(click to enlarge)
... another article in 1902
(click to enlarge article)
Read an excellent narrative about the German influence in Chicago by Neil Gale, admin of Living History of Illinois and Chicago (on Facebook) with this link.
The Swedes
The Swedes migrated to the United States and the Midwest in 1848 due to a shortage of good land to farm across Sweden. It was estimated at the time that over 40 per cent of Swedish soil was unproductive. This situation was made worse by an increase in population. One of the main reasons for this was a fall in infant mortality from 21% in 1750 to 15% in 1850. The situation grew worse in the 1850's when Sweden suffered a succession of poor harvests. Unemployment grew and wages fell. This led to a increase in the numbers of people wishing to emigrate. Most of these were bankrupted farmers and out of work agricultural labourers. Only about a quarter of all Swedish emigrants came from towns and cities. In Chicago the Swedes settled in an area called SwedeTown to later establish enclaves at Belmont/Clark and Clark/Foster.
photo - Chuckman Collection 1912 on 
Sheffield & SchoolIndependent Order of Vikings 
hall was called Bradge Lodge #2 - one of many and first permanent meeting place for this organization
Independent Order of Vikings: a History
From the center of Chicago, and proceeding north over the Chicago River, we can today still find Clark Street – referred to by Swedish-Americans in the early years as “Snusgatan”, or “Snuff Street”, named after the popular habit of chewing snuff. Continuing along Clark Street and just south of Oak Street at Washington Square Park we can imagine seeing small groups of these young Swedish men gathering together after long hours of work in the local industries, conversing with one another in their mother tongue, perhaps amusing themselves with games and sporting competitions.
These men, full of life and looking forward to a bright future for themselves and their families, soon became aware, however, of their insecurity should death, a debilitating sickness or any other misfortune happen to them. They thereupon resolved to establish a fraternal organization to help one another, both financially and communally. Such a decision was made, therefore, by a group of eleven Swedish immigrants during an informal gathering on June 2, 1890 in a bachelor room located at 86 Sedgwick Street.
 The Sheffield Location
On October 17, 1892 the Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Vikings granted a Charter for the establishment of a second subordinate Lodge. The name chosen was Brage #2. Its first meeting place was located at Locust and Townsend Streets, north of Chicago Avenue. By 1893 it was already time for larger quarters and Brage #2 moved to Phoenix Hall on Division and Sedgwick Streets. By 1910 they had sufficient membership & funds to move into their own building, the North Side Viking Temple, at Sheffield Avenue and School Street. By 1919, almost 30 years after the first Lodge [near the loop area] was formed, there were 59 lodges in six states with a combined membership of 9204. By 1929, almost forty years after Vikingarne #1, there were already 95 lodges located in 19 states with a total membership near 15k 
By 1895, therefore, the I.O.V. had become incorporated as a certified insurance company. The Viking Order has continued up to the present time to operate under this Charter, issuing life insurance certificates to its members in amounts up to $10,000 in Illinois and other states in which it is licensed to operate. - segment of their history (word doc)
This lodge, lodge 27, was established in 1906 and occupied this building by 1922 - it's construction date.
A token with the address - Ebay
image - Warner Printing Company
image - Warner Printing Company
Near the old commercial epicenter of Belmont-Ashland-Lincoln the Swedish community erected four churches to support their unique interests; Elim Swedish Methodist, Trinity Lutheran, Lake View Mission Covenant, and Swedish Trinity Lutheran. Another Swedish church in the area is the North Mission located at 1412 W Barry that was part of the Swedish Evangelical Free Mission Churches.
postcard images - Ebay
important contributor - Aaron Lisec
The Fralsningsarmens - Lake View Corps
was located near the IOV lodge
The (Swedish) Lake View Corps 1940
Most if not all Swedes needed to travel to British or German ports and ships to migrate to the Americans at this time.
The years between 1890 and 1919, according to publication called Ethnic Chicago (p.118), Swedes had the greatest influence in Lake View with five Swedish churches and eleven public lodges with the most concentration in the Belmont/Clark Street area. The Swedes were known to be employed by ‘truck farms’ in the northern part of old Lake 
View township.
a celebration in 1952
postcard - Ebay
An account from Aaron Lisec 
via LakeView Historical-Facebook
The Independent Order of Vikings (I.O.V.) was (is) a Scandinavian fraternal insurance and welfare organization active in Chicago since 1890. The earliest reference I found in the Tribune archives is 1895, a story about a holiday festival held Dec. 29 at Brand's Hall on North Clark.
The Independent Order of Vikings was founded by 11 young Swedish immigrants in Chicago. They had banded together to launch a fraternal organization to aid one another in sickness and need, as well as to render a last service to a departed fellow. ‎They called their organization "Vikingarne" and by the end of the year had 30 members and $27.35 in the treasury. In 1892 the society elected twelve delegates authorized to form a Grand Lodge and the first meeting was held October 3rd. This was the beginning of the Independent Order of Vikings with Society Vikingarne becoming Vikingarne Lodge No. 1. Lodge No. 3 was in Lake View.
once located at Newport & Sheffield
1923 Sanborn Map - look for IOGT Hall
Some History
'The International Order of Good Templars was founded by Swedish immigrants in the Turner Hall at Diversey and Sheffield in Chicago on Aug. 23, 1884. From 1914 to the 1960's it owned its own meeting place (a former church) in Chicago at Newport and Clark Street near Cub's Wrigley Field. In 1925, when the Good Templar Park was established, Jupiter became part owner of that new property. During the 1880's, many Scandinavian Good Templars migrated to the Mid-West. Due to language and cultural barriers, they frequently formed separate organizations within the Good Templar's movement. By 1892 the International Supreme Lodge allowed for the organization of Scandinavian districts under every Grand Lodge of every state. In 1907, the Scandinavian district under the Illinois Grand Lodge obtained its own charter and the name
Illinois Scandinavian Grand Lodge was adopted. While the Illinois Grand Lodge gradually disappeared, the Scandinavian Grand Lodge continued to absorb new members and serve as a social and cultural center for many immigrants from Sweden and Norway. The Illinois
Scandinavian Grand Lodge was later renamed the Central States Grand Lodge. Today the Central States Regional Council of IOGT includes 14 active chapters and lodges in the northern Illinois region. The work of the IOGT still is built on the principles of universal human brotherhood, according to which all are entitled to the right of personal freedom, happiness, and opportunity of self-expression and development. Accordingly, each individual person has a responsibility to work for the welfare of his fellow men and to contribute to the progress of mankind. All are obliged to take a pledge to uphold the above principles.'
image - Warner Printing Company
An Historical Excerpt 
from 'East Lake View' by Matthew Nickerson
According to this 1930 social science map from the University of Chicago Collection (zoomed) it looks like the concentration was in central areas. The dark shaded areas indicate density of population.
1914- 1984
 on Barry Avenue east of Halsted
their first meeting on Sheffield
A general membership meeting of the Swedish-American Athletic Club was held on January 8, in the club-rooms at 3055 Sheffield Avenue (google photo), and was attended by almost all members, proving that they take an active interest in the welfare of the organization. The report indicated that 1914 was a very active and successful year for the Club. The membership steadily increased, and at the turn of the year stood at 260. The athletic facilities have been improved, particularly the gymnasium to which a dressing room has been added. Practice in gymnastics is held every Tuesday and Thursday night under the instruction of Dr. Carl G. Rydin. The wrestlers practice every Wednesday night and Sunday morning, and most of the members are active athletes.
It was decided that the Club should also take up hockey, and members who already have developed some skill in this game were urged to join the team, which will probably see action during the ice races arranged by the Western Skating Association to take place in Garfield Park on January 17.
August Putkanen and Fred Holmes, the Club's ablest wrestlers, will compete in the Illinois Athletic Club's championship matches on January 16. George Odin is president of the Club.
a dance sponsored in 1931
image - Warner Printing Company
 A testament in 1960
Read a 1962 essay from the more recent past by Henry Bengston called Chicago's Belmont and Clark: a Corner of Memories via Swedish-American Historical Quarterly that highlights the Swedish business on Clark and Belmont Avenue. Apparently, from this essay the Swedes much like the Germans loved their social (lodges) organizations.
Follow the Swedish experiences on a Facebook page called Swedish American Museum for photos and stories.
dominance declines
image - Lake View by Matthew Nickerson
Swede to Korea-Town
According to the publication called The Lake View Saga the Swedish community in Lake View changed hands and was known as Korea-Town - excerpt for publication dated 1985.

The Japanese Experience
Nisei & Issei
Nisei means the son or daughter of Japanese immigrants who are born and educated in America and especially 
in the United States while Issei means 
a new Japanese immigrants to the Americas.
Consul S. Yamasaki and his wife 
standing on a Chicago railroad platform 1911 
-Chicago History Museum
Their history in Chicago - 1904 
While there has been a presence of Japanese residents in Chicago since late and early 20th century the greatest influx of residents occurred after the United State Supreme ruled in 1943 that the internment of resident Japanese, particularly US born, was illegal but part of the decision forced Issei and Nisei to move to west of the Mississippi River. 
The Nisei & Issei  populations would prove resilient after their World War II experiences and would thrive in a new land called Chicago. Many found emotional and financial stability in Chicago - many in Lake View and Uptown neighborhoods. By the 1960's urban renewal projects began to displace residents and businesses as old buildings and tenements in Lincoln Park were razed in favor of modern high rises for middle to upper income tenants. 
The Nisei needed more spacious accommodations for their growing families. A migration to the north-side the Nikkei community ensued three miles further up Clark Street into the Lake View neighborhood, in the vicinity of Wrigley Field, establishing businesses and their own cultural institutions.
Their Arrival in Chicago 1948
(click on article to view)
There were two notable symbols of their presence in Lake View - their churches and their Clark Street business area, in particular the restaurants during the 1950's and early 60's. 
View another church history with this link here. 
The community's status 1950
The most notable person of Lake View was 'Tokyo Rose'. Read more about her and her parents' store on Belmont Avenue with this Facebook link from my sister blog. 
A Senior Home on Sheffield & School 1965
(click on article to view)
page 2
photo - Discover Nikkei
along with an interactive map from WBEZ
One of the few retail establishments that has survived is the 
Nisei Lounge on Sheffield Avenue near Newport as of 2014.
'Paul Yamauchi (bottom left) remembers growing up in the Lake View neighborhood, near North Racine Ave. and West Eddy St. He would later work at The Hamburger King, his dad’s neighborhood restaurant.' - The Yamauchi family  
Yamauchi was a sansei, or third-generation Japanese-American. As a kid, he says, he worked next door at his dad’s restaurant, Hamburger King, which had a side door that connected to the Nisei Lounge. “One of my favorite activities was helping out my dad there,” he says. “My pay was a bowl of chili and fries.
 celebratory photo via Susan Reibman Groff 1968 LVHS book
pages - East Lake View by Matthew Nickerson
Mingling in Chicago 1987
(click on article to view)
A contribution to Lincoln Park 1967
(click on article to view)
Map of Japanese American business
Read more about the history of this ethnic group in a two part series part one about Lake View and then part two. 
This community as of 2017 still maintains its presence through it culture center
located at 1016 W Belmont Avenue
photo - their website
 both photo - Michael B. via Yelp
Saira C via Yelp
 both photos - William S via Yelp 2017
Although a handful of Puerto Rican men and women moved to Chicago from New York in the 1930's, the first significant wave of Puerto Rican Commonwealth citizens migration to Chicago began in the late 1940's. They arrived on the mainland seeking the same opportunities as their Euro counterparts, access to better life. By the 1960's most of the Chicago Puerto Ricans were concentrated in Lincoln Park, West Town, and Humboldt Park and shared these neighborhoods with Mexican and Polish immigrants as well as African Americans. An early Puerto Rican neighborhood was uprooted to construct Sandburg Village and moved north and west. In Lincoln Park, Puerto Rican residents established a small, ethnic enclave along Armitage Avenue that included small grocery stores and businesses providing goods and services for Puerto Rican neighbors. By the mid-1960's Puerto Rican and other low-income residents of Lincoln Park were displaced by urban renewal programs and the redevelopment of Lincoln Park. Puerto Rican residents relocated to West Town, New Town (East Lakeview) and more importantly Humboldt Park, where their concentration facilitated the creation of Chicago's first Puerto Rican barrio, or neighborhood, along Division Street, or, as residents frequently refer to it, la Division. Read an 2013 overview of the migration to Chicago with this link.
The Chicago Tribune articles below tell a tale of presence and struggle for these citizens in Chicago, 
particularly in the Lake View - Uptown areas.
1964 article about the formation 
of a minority committee
about their civic involvement 1966
also in 1966
(click on article to enlarge)
Funding for Spanish Speakers 1969

Neighborhood Association 
Assistance in 1969

Urban Renewal vs their population 1970
(click to enlarge article)
 Chicago is Home 1970
(click to enlarge article)
 Affordable Housing 
was a critical issue in the era of urban renewal for this population 1973

In 1974 Che Che Jimenz runs for alderman of the 46th ward, who apparently resided on somewhere on Grace Street. 
Mr. Jimenz was the head of the Young Lords 
Latinos struggle continue to fit in 1974
(click to enlarge article)
Latinos call Lake View home 1975
(click to enlarge article)

 Gentrification Begins 1976
New Town=Lake View East area
(click to enlarge article)

Their neighborhood struggle 1977
(click to enlarge article)
According to insert within this above article it appears like the concentration was in Lake View, West Town and New West Town. The concentration began to wane by 1990 according to 
University of Chicago census map - (zoom in)
(click to enlarge article)
Budget Cuts threaten Representation in Lake View 1983
(click to enlarge article)

page 2
(click to enlarge article)
The "last Puerto Rican" of Lake View 1987 
The Rizal Community Center in Lake View
The United States relationship with Philippines and the Filipino people began in 1898 when Spain lost the islands of the Philippines to the United States. The islands remained a protectorate until 1946 - one year after WWII earning is long awaited and hard fought independence from Spain, United States, and Japan. In Chicago, particularly in Lake View resides their Greater Chicago community center at Irving Park Road. Images below are from the link above.
 images from the book called Filipinos in Chicago

Post Notes: 
Read and view an interactive map of national change in immigration locations from 1850-2013 of the U.S. with this link.
Below a City View
This map shows the following ethnic groups of 1950 Lake View with the ethnic Germans to the west, Japanese and Swedes to the east. 
In central Lake View were the native Puerto Ricans 
& Native Americans. 
photo below - Scott David via
Forgotten Chicago Discusssion Group
My Commentary
It is in my opinion that without strong and vibrant organizations a social class or ethnic group had a more difficult time to 'take hold' in our neighborhood. The Germans and Swedes made a lasting impact  because of their own associations and social clubs. The most notable organization in Lake View were the German speakers who established & sponsored Turnverein or Social Turners Clubs. 
Read about the current neighborhood associations in Lake View in my post called Civic Associations.

Important Note:
These posts are exclusively used for educational purposes. I do not wish to gain monetary profit from this blog nor should anyone else without permission for the original source - thanks!

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