June 15, 2015

It Began Along the Lake

and because of a lake ...
About 14 thousand years ago during the tail end of the last ice age all of the area of Lake View Township was under water.
image zoomed - Calumet412 
Over three hundred million years ago our area of Illinois was covered with wetlands such as coastal swamps, deltas, and upland forests situated along an estuary bay (probably a much wider Chicago River) - Chicago History Museum

map by Vincenzo Coronelli mid 1690's 
photo - Paul Petraitis, Living History of Illinois and Chicago
Most rivers flowed into Lake Michigan before 1900
In more recent times, Lake Chicago also known as the Glacial Lake Chicago; term used by geologists for a lake that preceded Lake Michigan; was formed when the Wisconsin glacier retreated from the Chicago area, beginning about 14,000 years ago. Lake Chicago`s level, at its highest, was almost 60 feet higher than the level of present Lake Michigan and the lake completely covered the area now occupied by Chicago. Its northern outlet into the St. Lawrence River was still blocked by remnants of the glacier and it drained through the so-called Chicago outlet, a notch in the Valparaiso moraine, into the Mississippi system. Its western shores reached to where Oak Park and La Grange now exist.
As the glacier shrank in stages, the major three of which are often referred to as the Glenwood phase (50 feet above the level of Lake Michigan; c.12,000 years ago), the Calumet phase (35 feet; c.10,000 years ago), and the Tolleston phase (20 feet; less than 8,000 years ago); each left behind many sandy beach ridges. The lake`s southern shores were dammed by the hills of the Tinley-Valparaiso terminal moraine systems; as the glacier retreated farther and cleared the northern outlet, the lake level fell further and Lake Chicago would later be renamed Lake Michigan.
Note: View my Facebook album about the original shoreline  prior to 1894 along the old Lake View in Lake View Historical in Facebook.
People:
 The Originals 
Tribal Lands as of 1623
Tribes were more nomadic so did not have the tradition border locations like the European settlers would have preferred.
Source:  Pictorial History of Michigan:  
The Early Years, George S. May - (1967)
Tribal routes as of 1804
There was a village near Diversey and Clark/Broadway
In 2013 artifacts were discovered within the City of Chicago in the neighborhood of Bowmanville.
 About (Evanston) Broadway and north of Lawrence Avenue that shows Clark Street as a high ridge path 
early 19th century via Calumet412 

This illustration is an example of the markers or landmarks that native Americans grew, and used in the area to possibly
 indicate direction or some sort of sign language. 
Settlers simply called them 'Indian Tree'.
An article about the trails 
that formed the settlement of Chicago
(click to enlarge)
People: The Europeans
Wikipedia
Wikipedia
photo - GeoCurrents
The area that we currently call the State of Illinois was once governed by France and called Pais Des Illinois. This territory was referred to as New France by the late 17th century to 1763. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 allowed the British Empire French territory east of the Mississippi River and similarly allowed New France to exist west of the river until 1803. 
once part of the Northwest Territory
Rendering of Chicago 1779 that features the first non-native Jean Baptiste De Sable
British territory as of 1775 that included 
the Northwest territories in 'sky blue'
  interactive image Accessible Archives-Facebook
at one period in time our area belonged to Connecticut
Northwest Territories in green - United States 1800ish
The Illinois territory had many forms before statehood 
photos - Living History of Illinois and Chicago
Establishment of the counties along the rivers first
no Cook County let alone a Lake View Township yet
state of soil and crops
the principal towns at the time
Bounty Lands
Henry Charles Carey & Isaac Lea Map 1820
Barry Lawrene Ruderman Antiques
David Rumsey Collection 
Illinois land mass was 98% prairie before Europeans arrived in the 1600's. The area just north of the existing City of Chicago was described at the time as "a waste of sand and scrub oaks" bordering along the lakefront.  Before European settlements were established Chicago there was a Potawatomi village apparently located in the general area of Fullerton, Lincoln, and Clark Streets as late as the first quarter of the 19th century. By the first quarter of the 19th century a physical separation had occurred between the native American population and the Europeans that existed in the Chicagoland area
The 1833 Treaty of Chicago, which concluded the Blackhawk War, forced the Potawatomi to sell all remaining tribal lands (outside those given in land grants) that forced the removal of all Indians from State of Illinois. With the Potawatomi gone the settlers moved in.
This illustration is inspired by a diorama from the 
1933 Century of Progress Exposition showing an unnamed Native American, the Kinzie houseFort Dearborn, and the dunes at the lake shore in the horizon.
from Kenneth Swedroe via 
Original Chicago-Facebook
 Mouth of Chicago River - from CardCow
1830 map - via Chicago Past
another view more detail 1830
photo - via Patrick McBriarty Windy City Historians-Facebook
This hand drawn was created by the Commander of Fort Dearborn. The Europeans were defeated that temporary delayed the advance of a European settlement. 
Read more about this tale from Paul Petraitis & other contributors of Forgotten Chicago-Facebook.
1818 Matthew Carey map Potawatomi map 
- from Early Chicago.com. 
The territory of Illinois became a state within the 
United States that year
A What if?
photo - Heritage: Chicago
article - DNAinfo
'Alexander Robinson, who was one of Chicago's most prominent early residents, opened the city's first tavern at Canal and Lake streets and knew Abraham Lincoln before he was president. For a fee, Robinson helped survivors flee the Fort Dearborn Massacre, including Chicago's first white settler, John Kinzie.' Now the question is, what if he did not agree - receiving no payment?
The Settlement Geography
 Chicago River settlement 1812 - Chicago Past
Known Native American settlements as of 1900
from a publication called The Chicago River by Libby Hill
along with another map perspective
Town of Chicago 1832 - Calumet 412
- image from The Chicago River by Libby Hill
Most of the Lake View area was owned by corporate types who engineered the Illinois and Michigan Canal enterprise.
The shaded area indicated land owned by the Illinois and Michigan Canal folks.
 mouth of the Chicago River
image - Ebay
Treaty of Chicago of 1833 was the end of influence and the end of most hunting grounds for Native American tribes along the greater Great Lakes region.  The United States drafted this treaty with the several villages of Potawatomi in Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Two years later a charter was granted by State of Illinois for a town called Chicago. 
an early illustration - Ebay 
image - Imgur
Two years after that in 1837 Chicago became a city along the mouth of the Chicago River. 
"The streets of the village in the fall soon became deluged with mud. It lay in many places half a leg deep, up to the hubs of the carts and wagons, in the middle of the streets, and the only sidewalk we had was a single plank stretched from one building to another. The smaller scholars I used to bring to school and take home on my back, not daring to trust them on the slippery plank. One day I made a misstep and went down into the thick mire with a little one in my arms. With difficulty I regained my foothold, with both overshoes sucked off by this thick, slimy mud, which I never recovered. 
- G. Sproat June, 1887"
Chief Abram Burnett, 
one of many hereditary Chief of the Potawatomis - 1863
The last Native American settlement (reservation) was located in the Evanston Township area know as Ouilmette. 
trading post dotted the landscape around Lake Michigan
This is a photo of the Bailly trading post 
OAC - Online Archive of California
This 1910 article below tells the tale of the last day for native Americans in Illinois including Chicago
(click to enlarge)

image - 1830-33 map of Chicago
Online Archive of California  

Between 1816-28 troops of Fort Dearborn dug up the sandbar to create a channel to the river's mouth. 
By 1837 most of the channel was completed that allowed growth of commerce and more local settlements to continue.
image - Online Archive of California 

images - Online Archive of California 

images - Online Archive of California 
The United States in 1842
Murray Hudson.com
Transportation routes in 1850 
from Chicago: growth of a metropolis
Green Bay Road (Clark Street) appeared to be the main road into what was to be Lake View Township. According to the publication called 'Chicago: its history and its builders, a century of marvelous growth' taverns were like road-stops if travels wanted to go from point A to point B. The first major road-stop tavern was along Green Bay Road a short distance near to the yet to be built Old Town Hall on Halsted Street.
The tavern was called Brittion. (p. 321)
Lake View like most of the lands nearest to the lakefront were composed of 'sandy soil' that included 'some gravel and 'stony soils' per this 1927 above along with a Native American settlement map as 1804.
 
 City of Chicago Maps
image - History of Chicago, Volume II 
Purple: February 11, 1835
Blue: March 4, 1837
Pink: February 16, 1847
Green: February 12,1853
Yellow: February 13, 1863
Brown: February 7, 1869
 1853 image - Alabama University 
City of Chicago one year before the establishment 
of Lake View Township 
zoomed image - Alabama University 
zoomed view of the map above highlights Green Bay Road (Clark Street) and Little Fort Road (Lincoln Avenue) - the two main roads that would connect the city with the township
The Townships of Cook County 1870
images via My Genealogy Hound
by 1876 Chicago and the township of Lake View had established its border on Fullerton Avenue
According to a research report from Chicago Magazine the emigrate groups to Cook County between 1870 to 1900 were either German, Irish, Swedish/Norwegian making up 1/2 of the population during this time period while the other half migrated from the East Coast.
1850-1854
The first formal township north of Chicago was established by the State of Illinois in 1850 at the same time as the County of Cook was established. Ridgeville Township had a population of about 445 according to this 1851 map below. This township included Rogers Park and northern Chicago. 
The territory (zoom) included the current Evanston Township (City of) and Lake View Township. The township last no more than seven years until it was subdivided into two townships in 1857. This maps highlights taverns that would serve as stops for refreshments (for both horse and owner) and lodging such as Schulzer, Sliipy, M. Trader, and Anderson Hoods - also called The Seven Mile Tavern due to its distance for central Chicago. By 1860 the residents of the Germanic states and principalities of Europe was the largest foreign group of immigrants to Illinois (click on the year 1860). 
“United States census records show Illinois to have a population of 1.7 million. A total of 7,628 are African Americans. About 707,000 Illinoisans are native to the state. The largest number of non-natives came from: Ohio (131,000); German states (130,000); New York (121,000); Ireland (87,000); Pennsylvania (83,000); Indiana (62,000); Kentucky (60,000); England (41,000); Tennessee (39,000); Virginia (32,000)”. 
Lake View Township
image - 1887 Blanchard map, David Rumsey Map Collection
When Conrad Sulzer’s family settled in the area later to be known as the Township of Lake View, north of Chicago, these ten square miles of the township along the lakefront were of empty prairie, shrubs, and lakefront marsh.
this 1880 Rand McNally railroad map indicates the communities of the time such as Wrights Grove, Pine Grove, Ravenswood, and Rose Hill 
Most of the original settlers of this area that arrived during the same time period of Dr. Sulzer's family were from the German and Swedish populations of Chicago and the so-called Luxembourgers from Europe who sought expanse space and opportunity for renewal and growth without fear of European repression or from Town of Chicago governmental regulations. Also, the price was right! Disregard the outlining of Lincoln Park - just drawn for location purposes.
Land value assessment per square mile as of 1836 
two years after Dr. Sulzer's arrival to the Lake View area.
The University of Chicago map illustration above indicated established subdivisions between 1844-1862. It is to be noted that this map was drafted in 1933 (so no Lincoln Park at the time), Sheridan Road proposed extension, and the rail lines were added to help the viewer with geography.
Land values assessment per square mile as of 1873-79 years after the incorporation of Lake View Township and 16 years before the annexation to Chicago.
 1879 Encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org map (zoomed) show streets and communities with Lake View Township such as Pine Grove, Andersonville, Ravenswood, Bowmanville, and a community called Henry Town. Also shown are the cemeteries of Rosehill & Graceland. During this time period Rogers Park had earned its separate distinction as a township from Evanston Township.
The shoreline - pre development
postcards - Ebay
another typical shoreline 1903
photo - UIC via Explore Chicago Collection
A Place to Sleep, Drink, and Party
one of the first resort hotels & parks of the old township
image - 'Challenging Chicago' by Katy Crowley
1890's photo via Chicagology est. 1860
'The grand opening was on a Wednesday evening in December, 1866, and reporters from the major Chicago papers were brought to the gala affair in a huge four-horse sleigh. Hyman declared to all, “I would like you gentlemen of the press to understand that this affair will be straight to the wink of an eyelash. All the ladies are here on their honor, and Mrs. Hyman will see to it that nothing unseemly takes place.”' - exerpt from Chicagology
located on Grace Street & the then existing lakefront
The most remembered is the old Huntley House 
renamed Lake View House by 1853
The Lake View House owned by Elisha Huntley and co-managed James Rees and then co-owned to be used not only as a resort but a meeting place to discuss real estate, particularly Mr. Huntley's holdings in the old community of Pine Grove beginning in 1853 until 1890ish. I have a open petition to the 46th Chicago ward office to create a landmark status of the current garden space that will memorialize this hotel of old Lake View. Please read the link for more details.
At the edge of the old Lake View
 Jerri Walker via Forgotten Chicago on Facebook
One of the first communities of the Township of Lake View -Bowmansville on Devon east of Western Avenue - 1914
Jerri Walker - Forgotten Chicago on Facebook
Join the conversation of Facebook on this photo!
Chicago River north at Lawrence Street Bridge 1909 
Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago
called Chicago Today and Tomorrow, The National Geographic Magazine, January 1919 
photo & info - Friends of Cuneo-Facebook 
 Two adults and a child along the Northwest Rail Company rail tracks that once was route through the 
old township within the community of Buena Park
 Read the text above 1887 ... the year the township of Lake View was chartered as a City in Illinois
 The turn of track that is now West Sheridan Road 
and once called Graceland Road (Irving Park Road)
 Leland Avenue looking west 1891 
 Leland Avenue near Dover_Street 1891 
 
 This photo was grainy before I enhanced it and made it somewhat better than before
 Looking west from Seeley Avenue towards Western Avenue 1890's
Sam Brown Real Estate Office 
for the Sheridan Drive Subdivision 
that was located @ Clark and Wilson 1891 
 Sunnyside Avenue looking west for that street
Wilson and Evanston (Broadway) Avenue prior to the construction of the elevated tracks in 1907 with a 
new version by end of 2015
Wilson Avenue looking northwest on Malden Street 1891 
 Wilson and Magnolia 1891
Wilson Avenue at Malden and Magnolia 
formerly known as Arlington Street 1891
Note: photos that are list as from Sulzer Regional Library are gathered and stored by the Ravenswood Lake View Community Collection housed in this particular library
Montrose Avenue looking west toward Ravenswood Avenue in 1905 years before the elevated tracks would be constructed photo - Calumet412
For Those Who Dare to Read ... More
This is article from 'The Chicagoan' tells a detail evolutionary accounting of the State of Illinois from its beginning til the publication of the article in 1932. Need another look at it!
(or click to enlarge article)
page 2
page 3
page 4

Post Notes: Read more about future developments from my post called Early Township Communities and then
Lake View Township News followed by City of Lake View. 
I have over 80 topically posts on the subject of our neighborhood. Those 1930-33 Social Scientist Maps are from the University of Chicago Collection

Important Note:
These posts are exclusively used for educational purposes. I do not wish to gain monetary profit from this blog nor should anyone else without permission for the original source - thanks!                                           

Post a Comment